Study MaterialsNote Making Class 12 Format, Examples

Note Making Class 12 Format, Examples

♦ Tips To Prepare Notes:

  1. Prepare notes using phrases only, never use complete sentences
  2. The topic sentence of each paragraph is the main point and ideas affiliated to it are Sub-points-one or more, depending on the concepts in the paragraph.
  3. Each sub-point may or may not have supplementary ideas which become sub-subpoints.
  4. Provide an appropriate title for the notes or the summary or abstract, as given in the question.
  5. Include a minimum of 4-6 distinctly different recognizable short forms i.e., abbreviations of the words in the notes.
  6. Cover all the important points in the notes meaningfully to prepare the abstract/summary in about 80100 words.
  7. Write the summary or abstract in complete sentences in a paragraph.

♦ How To Summarise A Given Passage

  • Read (First Read): Read the passage very carefully and critically. Read the passage straight through. Do not stop to look up anything that gives you trouble at the first reading. You should get a feel for the author’s tone, style and main idea.
  • Reread (Second Read): Rereading should be active reading. Underline the topic sentences and key facts with pencil. Label the areas that you want to refer to as you write your summary. Also label the areas that you find irrelevant. Identify areas that you do not understand and try to clarify those points.
  • One Sentence at a time: Now write the main idea of each paragraph in one well-developed sentence. Make sure that what you include in your sentence are key points and not minor details.
  • Write a Thesis Statement: The key to a well-written summary is the Thesis Statement. A quality Thesis Statement could either express one main idea or assert your conclusions about the subject. Generally, a thesis statement consists of the following parts –
    • a clearly identifiable topic or subject matter, and
    • a succinct summary of what you have to say about that topic.
  • Ready to Write: You can use Thesis Statement as the introductory sentence of your summary, while your other sentences can make up the body.
    In fact, a good summary should give ideas, facts or points in the order in which they are given in the original text.
    Add some transition words such as-then, however, also, moreover etc., that help with the overall structure and flow of the summary. The following tips will help you to write a good summary:

    • Write in the present tense (preferably in active voice).
    • Be Concise-Summary should be within the word limit (about 80 words) and should be coherent without any errors in logic. Don’t put your opinions, ideas or interpretations into the summary.
  • Check for Accuracy: Reread your summary and make sure that you have accurately represented the author’s ideas and key points. Make sure that your summary does not contain your own comments.
  • Revise: Revise your summary for style, grammar and punctuation. Correct all the errors in composition and rewrite it if needed.

 

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    ♦ Previous Years’ CBSE Examination Questions

    Question 1.
    Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow: (Delhi, All India 2009)

    Effective speaking depends on effective listening. It takes energy to concentrate on hearing and to concentrate on understanding what has been heard. Incompetent listeners fail in a number of ways. First, they may drift. Their attention drifts from what the speaker is saying. Second, they may counter. They find counter-arguments to whatever a speaker may be saying. Third, they compete. Then, they filter. They exclude from their understanding those parts of the message which do not readily fit with their own frame of reference. Finally, they react. They let personal feelings about a speaker or subject override the significance of the message which is being sent.

    What can a listener do to be more effective? The first key to effective listening is the art of concentration. If a listener positively wishes to concentrate on receiving a message his chances of success are high.

    It may need determination. Some speakers are difficult to follow, either because of voice problems or because of the form in which they send a message. There is then a particular need for the determination of a listener to concentrate on what is being said.

    Concentration is helped by alertness. Mental alertness is helped by physical alertness. It is not simply physical fitness, but also positioning of the body, the limbs and the head. Some people also find it helpful to their concentration if they hold the head slightly to one side. One useful way for achieving this is intensive note-taking, by trying to capture the critical headings and sub-headings the speaker is referring to.

    Note-taking has been recommended as an aid to the listener. It also helps the speaker. It gives him confidence when he sees that listeners are sufficiently interested to take notes; the patterns of eye-contact when the note-taker looks up can be very positive; and the speaker’s timing is aided-he can see when a note-taker is writing hard and can then make effective use of pauses.

    Posture too is important. Consider the impact made by a less competent listener who pushes his chair backwards and slouches. An upright posture helps a listener’s concentration. At the same time it is seen by the speaker to be a positive feature amongst his listeners. Effective listening skills have an impact on both the listener and the speaker.

    (a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage, make notes on it using headings and sub-headings. Use recognisable abbreviations wherever necessary. 5
    Answer:
    Title: The Art of Effective Listening Notes:
    1. Eff. speaking depends on:

    1.1 eff. listening
    1.2 concen. on listening
    1.3 concen. on understanding what you hear

    2. Reasons why incompetent listeners fail:

    2.1 their attention drifts
    2.2 they find counter arguments
    2.3 they compete & then filter 2.4. they react

    3. Ways for a listener to be more eff.:

    3.1 concen. on the msg. reed.
    3.1.1 mental alertness
    3.1.2 phys. alertness-positioning body
    3.1.3 note-taking-aid to listener helps speaker-gives him confidence encourages the eye contact

    4. Impce. of posture

    4.1 helps listeners in concen.
    4.2 seen by spkr. as a +ve feature among his listeners

    ♦ List of Abbreviations

    Eff. – effective
    concen. – concentrating
    msg. – message
    reed. – received
    phys. – physical
    +ve – positive
    impce. – importance
    spkr. – speaker

    (b) Write a summary of the passage in not more than 80 words using the notes made and also suggest a suitable title.
    Answer:
    Title: The Art of Effective Listening
    Summary: Effective speaking and effective listening are two sides of the same coin, both equally important. An incompetent listener will always fail as he drifts away from counters, competes and finally filters what the speaker is saying. To be a good listener concentration is important combined with mental and physical alertness. The importance of other factors like note-taking and posture cannot be ignored. All these are effective listening skills and are viewed as a positive feature by the speaker among his listeners. They have an impact not only on the listener but also on the speaker.

    Question 2.
    Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow: (Delhi, All India 2010 )

    Despite all the research every one of us catches cold and most of us catch it frequently. Our failure to control one of the commonest of all ailments sometimes seems ridiculous. Medical science regularly practises transplant surgery and has rid whole countries of such killing diseases as Typhus and the Plague. But the problem of common cold is unusually difficult and much has yet to be done to solve it. It is known that a cold is caused by one of a number of viral infections that affect the lining of the nose and other passages leading to the lungs but the confusing variety of viruses makes study and remedy very difficult. It was shown in 1960 that many typical colds in adults are caused by one or the other of a family of viruses known as rhinoviruses, yet there still remain many colds for which no virus has as yet been isolated.

    There is also the difficulty that because they are so much smaller than the bacteria which cause many other infections, viruses cannot be seen with ordinary microscopes. Nor can they be cultivated easily in the bacteriologist’s laboratory, since they only grow within the living cells of animals or plants. An important recent step forward, however, is the development of the technique of tissue culture, in which bits of animal tissue are enabled to go on living and to multiply independently of the body. This has greatly aided virus research and has led to the discovery of a large number of viruses. Their existence had previously been not only unknown but even unsuspected.

    The fact that we can catch a cold repeatedly creates another difficulty. Usually, a virus strikes only once and leaves the victim immune to further attacks. Still, we do not gain immunity from colds. Why? It may possibly be due to the fact that while other viruses get into the bloodstream where anti-bodies can oppose them, the viruses causing cold attack cells only on the surface. Or it may be that immunity from one of the many different viruses does not guarantee protection from all the others. It seems, therefore, that we are likely to have to suffer colds for some time yet.

    (a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage, make notes on it in points only, using abbreviations, wherever necessary. Also, suggest a suitable title. 5
    Answer:
    Title: No Control over Common Cold Notes:
    1. How to control com. cold:

    1.1 No cure to control it
    1.2 Cure avail, for Typhus & Plague
    1.3 Prob. of com. cold not yet solved

    2. Reasons for cold:

    2.1 It is a viral infec. that affects nose-lining
    2.2 Caused by fmly. of viruses called Rhinoviruses
    2.3 For certain colds no viruses hv yet bn isolated

    3. Prob. of identifying viruses:

    3.1 Smaller than bacteria so can’t be seen with ordinary microscopes
    3.2 Cannot be easily cultivated in bacteriologists lab. v grow within the living cells of plants & animals.

    4. Div. of tissue culture aided by:

    4.1 bits of animal tissue go on living
    4.2 multiply independently off the body
    4.3 has led to the discovery of large no. of viruses
    4.4 their existence previously unknown and unsuspected

    5. No imm. from cold:

    5.1 viruses causing cold attacks only on surface & not bloodstream
    5.2 cannot be opposed by anti-bodies
    5.3 imm. from one virus doesn’t guarantee protection from all
    5.4 you hv to suffer from cold for some more time

    ♦ List of Abbreviations

    Eff. – effective
    com. – common
    & – and
    avail. – available
    prob. – problem
    infec. – infection
    fmly. – family
    hv – have
    bn – been
    lab. – laboratory
    V – because
    Dev. – development
    no. – number
    fm – from
    imm. – immunity

    (b) Write a summary of the passage in not more than 80 words using the notes made. 3
    Answer:
    Summary: Despite having the cure to killing diseases like Typhus and Plague it seems ridiculous that medical science has not done much yet to solve the problem of common cold. This is because the study of viruses remains confusing as they cannot be seen with ordinary microscopes. Now with the development of the technique of tissue culture a large number of viruses have been discovered whose existence was earlier unknown. We keep catching cold and never become immune to it because the viruses causing cold attack only on the surface unlike other viruses tht get into the bloodstream and so can be opposed by anti-bodies.

    Question 3.
    Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow: (Delhi, All India 2011 )

    There is nothing more frustrating than when you sit down at your table to study with the most sincere of intentions and instead of being able to finish the task at hand, you find your thoughts wandering. However, there are certain techniques that you can use to enhance your concentration. “Your concentration level depends on a number of factors,” says Samuel Ghosh, a social counsellor. “In order to develop your concentration span, it is necessary to examine various 2 facets of your physical and internal environment,” she adds.

    To begin with one should attempt to create the physical environment that is conducive to focussed thought. Whether it is the radio, TV or your noisy neighbours, identify the factors that make it difficult for you to focus. For instance, if you live in a very noisy neighbourhood, you could try to plan your study hours in a nearby library.

    She disagrees with the notion that people can concentrate or study in an environment with distractions like a loud television, blaring music etc. “If you are distracted when you are attempting to focus, your attention and retention powers do not work at optimum levels,” cautions Ghosh. “Not more than two of your senses should be activated at the same time,” she adds. What that means is that music that sets your feet tapping is not the ideal accompaniment to your books.

    Also do not place your study table or desk in front of a window. “While there is no cure for a mind that wants to wander, one
    should try and provide as little stimulus as possible. Looking out of a window when you are trying to concentrate will invariably send your mind on a tangent,” says Ghosh.

    The second important thing, she says, is to establish goals for oneself instead of setting a general target and then trying to accomplish what you can in a haphazard fashion. It is very important to decide what you have to finish in a given span of time. The human mind recognizes fixed goals and targets and appreciates schedules more than random thoughts. Once your thoughts and goals are in line, a focussed system will follow.

    She recommends that you divide your schedule into study and recreation hours. When you study, choose a mix of subjects that you enjoy and dislike and save the former for the last so that you have something to look forward to. For instance, if you enjoy verbal skill tests more than mathematical problems, then finish Maths first. Not only will you find yourself working harder, you will have a sense of achievement when you wind up.

    Try not to sit for more than 40 minutes at a stretch. Take a very short break to make a cup of tea or listen to a song and sit down again. Under no circumstances, should one sit for more than one and a half hours. Short breaks build your concentration and refresh your mind. However, be careful not to overdo the relaxation. It may have undesired effects.

    More than anything else, do not get disheartened. Concentration is merely a matter of disciplining the mind. It comes with practice and patience and does not take very long to become a habit for life.

    (a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage, make notes on it in points only, using abbreviations, wherever necessary. Also suggest a suitable title. 5
    Answer:
    Title: Techniques to Enhance Concentration Notes:

    1. Hurdles to Concen.

    1.1 wandering thoughts
    1.2 radio or TV
    1.3 noisy environ.
    1.4 distracting environ.

    2. Techniques for enhancement of Concern.

    2.1 examine the environmental factors- both phys. & internal
    2.2 identify the distracting factors
    2.3 activate one sense at a time
    2.4 keep study table away from the window

    3. Managing concen.

    3.1 estab. specific goals rather than gen. targets
    3.2 set your thoughts & goals in line
    3.3-time mgmt.

    4. Recommendations

    4.1 estab. your goals & schedules
    4.2 plan your study and recrat.nl hrs.
    4.3 make concen. a habit for life

    5. Ultimate help

    5.1 don’t get disheartened
    5.2 discipline the mind
    5.3 practice & develop patience

    List of Abbreviations

    concen. – concentration
    environ. – environment
    phys. – physical
    & – and
    mgmt – management
    estab – establish
    gen. – general
    recreat.nl – recreational
    hrs. – hours

    (b) Write a summary of the above in 80 words.
    Answer:
    Summary: There can be many hurdles to concentration. Your wandering thoughts, radio, TV and a noisy or destructive environment. But one can overcome these hurdles by following certain techniques to enhance concentration.

    The environmental facets-both physical and internal need to be identified and dealt with separately, one at a time. Concentration can also be managed by establishing specific goals instead of setting general targets. Our goals and thoughts should be set in line and we also need to manage time. The recommendations for improving concentration are that one should establish goals and schedules and plan his study and recreational hours. This will make concentration a habit for life.

    Question 4.
    Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow: (Delhi, All India 2012)

    Research has shown that the human mind can process words at the rate of about 500 per minute, whereas a speaker speaks at the rate of about 150 words a minute. The difference between the two at 350 is quite large.

    So a speaker must make every effort to retain the attention of the audience and the listener should also be careful not to let his mind wander. Good communication calls for good listening skills. A good speaker must necessarily be a good listener.

    Listening starts with hearing but goes beyond. Hearing, in other words is necessary but is not a sufficient condition for listening. Listening involves hearing with attention. Listening is a process that calls for concentration. While, listening, one should also be observant. In other words, listening has to do with the ears, as well as with the eyes and the mind. Listening is to be understood as the total process that involves hearing with attention, being observant and making interpretations. Good communication is essentially an interactive process. It calls for participation and involvement. It is quite often a dialogue rather than a monologue. It is necessary to be interested and also show or make it abundantly clear that one is interested in knowing what the other person has to say.

    Good listening is an art that can be cultivated. It relates to skills that can be developed. A good listener knows the art of getting much more than what the speaker is trying to convey. He knows how to prompt, persuade but not to cut off or interrupt what the other person has to say. At times the speaker may or may not be coherent, articulate and well organised in his thoughts and expressions. He may have it in his mind and yet he may fail to marshal the right words while communicating his thought.

    Nevertheless, a good listener puts him at ease, helps him articulate and facilitates him to get across the message that he wants to convey. For listening to be effective, it is also necessary that barriers to listening are removed. Such barriers can be both physical and psychological. Physical barriers generally relate to hindrances to proper hearing whereas psychological barriers are more fundamental and relate to the interpretation and evaluation of the speaker and the message.

    (a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage, make notes in points only, using abbreviations wherever necessary. Supply a suitable title. 5
    Answer:
    Title: The Art of Good Listening and Speaking Notes:

    1. Research has shown:

    1.1 human mind processes words @ 500/ min.
    1.2 spkr. speaks @ 150 words/min.
    1.3 large diff. b/ w the two – at 350.

    2. Essentials to being a good spkr. & listener:

    2.1 spkr. should be able to retain aud. attention.
    2.2 listener should not let his mind wander.
    2.3 a good spkr. must be a good listener also.

    3. Listening skills:

    3.1 start with hearing – tho’ it is not a sufficient condition
    3.2 involve hearing with attention
    – being observant
    – using one’s ears, eyes & mind
    – calls for participation & involvement
    3.3 It is dial, rather than monologue.

    4. Good listening is an art:

    4.1 can be cultivated & its skills can be developed
    4.2 A good listener knows
    – how to get much more than what spkr. wants to convey
    – to be prompt, persuade without interruption
    4.3 A good listener
    – puts spkr. at ease
    – helps him articulate
    – facilitates him to get across msg. he wants to convey

    5. Barriers to listening

    5.1 phys.
    – relating to hindrances to proper listening
    5.2 Psycho.
    – more fundamental
    – related to interpretation & evaluation of spkr. and msg.
    5.3 These barriers must be removed

    Key: List of Abbreviations

    @ – at the rate of
    / – per
    min. – minute
    spkr. – speaker
    diff. – difference
    b/w – between
    aud. – audience
    tho’ – though
    & – and
    dial. – dialogue
    msg. – message
    phys. – physical
    psycho. – psychological

    (b) Write a summary of the above passage in about 80 words. 3
    Answer:
    Summary: There is a vast difference between words the human mind can process and speak. The speaker must be able to retain audience attention and also be a good listener. Listening goes beyond hearing, it is hearing with attention and calls for concentration. One also needs to be observant, using not only one’s ears but also one’s eyes and mind. Good listening needs participation and involvement and involves dialogue more than monologue. It is an art that needs to be cultivated. A good listener must know how to be prompt and persuade but not interrupt the other person. He puts the speaker at ease, helps him to articulate and get across the message he wants to convey. For effective listening physical and psychological barriers need to be removed.

    Question 5.
    Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow: (Delhi, All India 2011)

    The term dietary fibres refers collectively to indigestible carbohydrates present in plant foods. The importance of these dietary fibres came into the picture when it was observed that the people having diet rich in these fibres, had low incidence of coronary heart disease, irritable bowel syndrome, dental caries and gall stones.

    The foodstuffs rich in these dietary fibres are cereals and grains, legumes, fruits with seeds, citrus fruits, carrots, cabbage, green leafy vegetables, apples, melons, peaches, pears etc.

    These dietary fibres are not digested by the enzymes of the stomach and the small intestine whereas most of other carbohydrates like starch and sugar are digested and absorbed. The dietary fibres have the property of holding water and because of it, these get swollen and behave like a sponge as these pass through the gastrointestinal tract. The fibres add bulk to the diet and increase transit time in the gut. Some of these fibres may undergo fermentation in the colon.

    In recent years, it has been considered essential to have some amount of fibres in the diet. Their beneficial effects lie in preventing coronary heart disease, and decreasing cholesterol level. The fibres like gums and pectin are reported to decrease postprandial (after meals) glucose level in the blood. These types of dietary fibres are recommended for the management of certain types of diabetes. Recent studies have shown that the fenugreek (Methi) seeds, which contain 40 per cent gum, are effective in decreasing blood glucose and cholesterol levels as compared to other gum containing vegetables.

    Some dietary fibres increase transit time and decrease the time of release of ingested food in colon. The diet having less fibres is associated with colon cancer and the dietary fibres may play a role in decreasing the risk of it.

    The dietary fibres hold water so that stools are soft, bulky and readily eliminated. Therefore, high fibre intake prevents or relieves constipation.

    The fibres increase motility of the small intestine and the colon and by decreasing the transit time there is less time for exposure of the mucosa to harmful toxic substances. Therefore, there is a less desire to eat . and the energy intake can be maintained within the range of requirement. This phenomenon helps in keeping a check on obesity. Another reason in helping to decrease obesity is that the high-fibre diets have somewhat lower coefficients of digestibility.

    The dietary fibres may have some adverse effects on nutrition by binding some trace metals like calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, zinc and others and therefore preventing their proper absorption. This may pose a possibility of nutritional deficiency especially when diets contain marginal levels of mineral elements. This may become important constraints on increasing dietary fibres. It is suggested that an intake of 40 grams dietary fibres per day is desirable. (Extracted from ‘The Tribune’)

    (a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it in points only, using recognizable abbreviations wherever necessary. Also suggest a suitable title. 5 Answer: Title: The Importance of Dietary Fibres Notes:

    1. Definition and importance of dietary fibres:

    1.1 Refer to indigestible carbohydrates present in plant foods.
    1.2 People having diet rich in fibres had low incidence of-
    1.2.1 coronary heart disease
    1.2.2 IBS
    1.2.3 dental caries
    1.2.4 gallstones.
    1.3 Egs. of foodstuffs rich in dietary fibres: cereals, legumes, cabbage, carrots, green leafy vegetables, etc.

    2. Characteristics of dietary fibres:

    2.1 Unlike other carbohydrates, they are not digested by the enzymes of the stomach and the small intestines.
    2.2 Have properties of holding H20 & v of it they get swollen.
    2.3 Add bulk to the diet and increase transit time in the gut.

    3. Benefits of dietary fibres:

    3.1 Prevent coronary heart disease.
    3.2 ise cholesterol level.
    3.3 Tse prandial glucose level in the blood.
    3.4 Recommended for the management of certain types of diabetes.
    3.5 tse transit time and ise the time of release of ingested food in colon.
    3.6 Prevent or relieve constipation.

    4. Dietary fibres check obesity:

    4.1 tse motility of small intestine and colon by decreasing transit time.
    4.2 v there is less desire to eat and energy intake can be maintained within the requirement range.
    4.3 This phenomenon helps to keep a check on obesity.
    4.4 High-fibre diets also have lower coefficients of digestibility.

    5. Adverse effects of dietary fibres on nutrition:

    5.1 Bind some trace metals like calcium, magnesium, phosphorus etc. & prevent their proper absorption.
    5.2 This poses possibility of nutritional deficiency.
    5.3 May also become an imp. constraint on increasing dietary fibres.
    5.4 Suggested intake of 40 gm dietary

    Key: List of Abbreviations
    Note Making Class 12 Format, Examples 1

    (b) Write a summary of the above in about 80 words. 3
    Answer:
    Summary: Dietary fibres are the indigestible carbohydrates present in plant food. Their intake is important as they lower coronary heart disease, irritable bowel syndrome, gall stones etc. These dietary fibres, which are found in cereals, grains and some fruits, have the property of holding water and so are beneficial to prevent and reduce heart disease and cholesterol level. They also help to keep a check on obesity and relieve constipation. It is suggested that an intake of 40 grams dietary fibres per day is desirable because an excess of these can have an adverse effect on nutrition.

    Question 6.
    Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow: (Delhi, All India 2014)

    1. I remember my childhood as being generally happy and can recall experiencing some of the most carefree times of my life. But I can also remember, even more vividly, moments of being deeply frightened. As a child, I was truly terrified of the dark and getting lost. These fears were very real and caused me some extremely uncomfortable moments.

    2. May be it was the strange way things looked and sounded in my familiar room at night that scared me so much. There was never total darkness, but a street light or passing car lights made clothes hung over a chair take on the shape of an unknown beast. Out of the comer of my eye, I saw curtains move when there was no breeze. A tiny creak in the floor would sound a hundred times louder than in the daylight and my imagination would take over, creating burglars and monsters. Darkness always made me feel helpless. My heart would pound and I would lie very still so that ‘the enemy’ wouldn’t discover me.

    3. Another childhood fear of mine was that I would get lost, especially on the way home from school. Every morning, I got on the school bus right near my home-that was no problem. After school, though, when all the buses were lined up along the curve, I was terrified that I would get on the wrong one and be taken to some unfamiliar neighbourhood. I would scan the bus for the faces of my friends, make sure that the bus driver was the same one that had been there in the morning, and even then ask the others over and over again to be sure I was in the right bus. On school or family trips to an amusement park or a museum, I wouldn’t let the leaders out of my sight. And of course, I was never very adventurous when it came to taking walks or hikes because 1 would go only where I was sure I would never get lost.

    4. Perhaps, one of the worst fears I had as a child was that of not being liked or accepted by others. First of all, I was quite shy. Secondly, I worried constantly about my looks, thinking people wouldn’t like me because I was too fat or wore braces. I tried to wear ‘the right clothes’ and had intense arguments with my mother over the importance of wearing flats instead of saddled shoes to school. Being popular was very important to me then and the fear of not being liked was a powerful one.

    5. One of the processes of evolving from a child to an adult is being able to recognize and overcome our fears. I have learnt that darkness does not have to take on a life of its own, that others can help me when I am lost and that friendliness and sincerity will encourage people to like me. Understanding the things that scared us as children helps to cope with our lives as adults.

    (a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage, make notes using headings and subheadings. Use recognizable abbreviations wherever necessary. 5
    Answer:
    Title. My Childhood Fears Notes:
    1. Recalling my childhood:

    1.1 Generally happy.
    1.2 exp. rather carefree life.
    1.3 truly terrified of dark & getting lost.
    1.4 These fears caused me very uncomfortable moments.

    2. My room at night:

    2.1 things looked & sounded strange at night.
    2.2 never total darkness.
    2.3 always a street light or a passing car light.
    2.4 made clothes hung over chair take shape of beast.
    2.5 curtains moved even when there was no breeze.
    2.6 a tiny creak sounded louder at night.
    2.7 Darkness made me feel helpless.

    3. Another childhood fear:

    3.1 that I would get lost – esp. on my way home from school.
    3.2 terrified that I would take the wrong school bus.
    3.3 To reassure myself I would:
    3.3.1 scan the bus for faces of my friends
    3.3.2 make sure same driver as mong.
    3.4 on school/family trips-would not let leaders out of my sight.

    4. Worst childhood fear:

    4.1 not being liked or accepted by others.
    4.2 This was v I was:
    4.2.1 shy
    4.2.2 worried about my looks
    4.3 Being pop. V. imp. for me

    5. Process of evolving from childhood to adult:

    5.1 We are able to recognize & overcome our fears.
    5.2 learnt darkness does not take on its own life.
    5.3 Ppl. will like me if I am friendly & sincere.

    List of Abbreviations used:

    exp. – experienced
    & – and
    esp. – especially
    mong – morning
    v – because
    pop. – popular
    fmly – family
    Ppl. – people
    V.imp. – very important

    (b) Make a summary of the passage in not more than 80 words using the notes made and also suggest a suitable title. 3
    Answer:
    My Childhood Fears
    Summary: My childhood was generally happy but I was extremely scared of the dark. My imagination ran wild in my familiar room at night. Darkness made me feel helpless. I also feared getting lost especially on my way from school. But the worst fear I had as a child was not being liked or accepted by others. In the process of evolving from a child to an adult we are able to recognize and overcome our fears. Understanding things that scared us in our childhood will enable us to cope with our lives as adults.

    Question 7.
    Read the passage given below: (Delhi, All India 2015)

    It is surprising that sometimes we don’t listen to what people say to us. We hear them, but we don’t listen to them. I was curious to know how hearing is different from listening. I had thought both were synonyms, but gradually, I realised there is a big difference between the two words.

    Hearing is a physical phenomenon. Whenever somebody speaks, the sound waves generated reach you, and you definitely hear whatever is said to you. However, even if you hear something, it doesn’t always mean that you actually understand whatever is being said. Paying attention to whatever you hear means you are really listening. Consciously using your mind to understand whatever is being said is listening. Diving deeper, I found that listening is not only hearing with attention, but is much more than that. Listening is hearing with full attention, and applying our mind. Most of the time, we listen to someone, but our minds are full of needless chatter and there doesn’t seem to be enough space to accommodate what is being spoken.

    We come with a lot of prejudices and preconceived notions about the speaker or the subject on which he is talking. We pretend to listen to the speaker, but deep inside, we sit in judgement and are dying to pronounce right or wrong, true or false, yes or no. Sometimes, we even come prepared with a negative mind set of proving the speaker wrong. Even if the speaker says nothing harmful, we are ready to pounce on him with our own version of things.

    What we should ideally do is listen first with full awareness. Once we have done that, we can decide whether we want to make a judgement or not. Once we do that, communication will be perfect and our interpersonal relationship will become so much better. Listening well doesn’t mean one has to say the right thing at the right moment. In fact, sometimes if words are left unspoken, there is a feeling of tension and negativity. Therefore, it is better to speak out your mind, but do so with awareness after listening to the speaker with full concentration.

    Let’s look at this in another way. When you really listen, you imbibe not only what is being spoken, but you also understand what is not spoken as well. Most of the time we don’t really listen even to people who really matter to us. That’s how misunderstandings grow among families, husbands and wives, brothers and sisters.

    (A) On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it, using headings and sub-headings. Use recognizable abbreviations (wherever necessary -minimum four) and a format you consider suitable. Also supply an appropriate title to it. 5
    Answer:
    Title: Hearing Versus Listening Notes:
    1. Difference b/w listening & hearing

    1.1 hearing-a phys. phenomenon
    1.2 sound waves are gen.
    1.3 you hear what is said to you
    1.4 paying attention-means you are listening
    1.5 listening is using the mind consciously to understand what is said

    2. What is listening?

    2.1 more than hearing
    2.2 hearing with full attention & applying our mind

    3. What is not listening?

    3.1 While we listen our mind is full of needless chatter
    3.2 Not enough space to accommodate what is being said.
    3.3 Prej. and preconceived notions about the speaker give us a -ve mindset
    3.4 Even if the speaker says something harmless we pass our own judgement

    4. What one should really do?

    4.1 listen with full awareness-then make a judgement
    4.2 comm, will then be perfect
    4.3 interpersonal relationship-become much better

    5. Listening well means

    5.1 not to say the rt. thing at the rt. moment
    5.2 sometimes if words are unspoken- feeling of tension & negativity
    5.3 better to speak your mind but with awareness after listening with full concern
    5.4 listening well enables us to imbibe both, i.e., spoken & unspoken
    5.5 when we do not listen to people who matter to us-misunderstandings grow

    List of Abbreviations:

    b/w – between
    phys. – physical
    rt. – right
    gen. – generated
    concern- concentration
    & – and
    i. e – that is
    prej. – prejudices
    comm. – communication
    -ve – negative

    (B) Write a summary of the passage in about 80 words. 3
    Summary: There is a big difference between hearing and listening. Hearing is a physical phenomenon but paying attention and applying the mind to what you hear is listening. If we come with preconceived notions about the speaker we sit in judgement and are ready to pounce on him. We must listen first with full awareness and then decide if we want to make a judgement. It is better to speak our mind but after listening to the speaker with full concentration. We must listen to people who matter to us and then there will be no misunderstandings.

    Question 8.
    Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow: (Comptt. Delhi, Comptt. All India 2015)

    Although stupidity is commonly defined as ‘a lack of normal intelligence’, stupid behaviour is not the behaviour of a person lacking in intelligence but the behaviour of a person not using good judgement or sense. In fact, stupidity comes from the Latin word that means ‘senseless’. Therefore, stupidity can be defined as the behaviour of a person of normal intelligence who acts in a particular situation as if he or she isn’t very bright. Stupidity exists at three levels of seriousness.

    First is the simple, relatively harmless level. Behaviour at this level is often amusing. It is humorous when someone places the food from a fast-food restaurant on the roof of the car while unlocking the door and then drives away with the food still on the roof. We call this absent-minded. The person’s good sense or intelligence was temporarily absent. At this level, other than passing inconvenience or embarrassment, no one is injured by stupid behaviour.

    The next type-serious stupidity-is are more dangerous. Practical jokes such as putting sugar in the salt shakers are at this level. The intention is humorous, but there is a chance of harm. Irresponsible advice given to others is also serious stupidity. An example is a person who plays psychiatrist on the basis of an introductory psychology course or doing a TV program on psychiatry. The intention may be to help, but if the victim really needs psychiatric help an amateur will only worsen the situation.

    Even worse is the third kind of stupidity. Kind people, who would never injure another living being, stupidly throw away a box of six-week-old kittens along a country road. Lacking the heart to kill the poor things, they sentence them to almost certain death from wild animals, infections exposure or the wheels of a passing vehicle. Yet they are able to tell themselves that ‘they will find nice homes’ or ‘animals can get along in the wild’. Another example of this kind of stupidity is the successful local businessman who tries to have as many office affairs as he can get away with. He risks the loss of his business and his home. He fails to see that what he is doing is wrong. His is the true moral stupidity of a person not willing to think about the results of his actions or take responsibility for them. The common defence of a person guilty of stupidity is-‘But I didn’t think… ‘. This, however, is not a proper excuse, especially when serious or harmful stupidity is involved.

    (a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage, make notes on it using headings and sub-headings. Use recognizable abbreviations, wherever necessary.
    Answer:
    Title: Facts about Stupid Behaviour Notes:
    1. Definition

    1.1 Common def.
    1.1.1 lack of normal int.
    1.1.2 behaviour without good judgement
    1.2 Author’s def.
    1.2.1 behaviour of normal int. not acting brightly
    1.2.2 has 3 levels

    2. Levels of stupidity

    2.1 1st level
    2.1.1 simple
    2.1.2 harmless
    2.1.3 often amusing
    2.1.4 absent-mindedness
    2.1.5 no one injured

    2.2 2nd level

    2.2.1 more dangerous
    2.2.2 intention humorous but chance

    2.3 3rd level

    2.3.1 worst
    2.3.2 moral stupidity
    2.3.3 unwilling to take resp.

    List of abbreviations used:

    int. – intelligence
    def. – definition
    1st – first
    2nd – second
    resp. – responsibility
    3rd – third

    (b) Write a summary of the passage in not more than 80 words using the notes made and also suggest a suitable title.
    ‘Facts About Stupid Behaviour 7 Summary: Stupid behaviour is not about a person lacking intelligence but about not using good judgement or sense. The word ‘stupidity’ is derived from the Latin word meaning senseless and is defined as the behaviour of a person with normal intelligence who acts not very brightly in a particular situation. Stupidity exists at three levels of seriousness. The first is the simple and harmless level which is often amusing. The next level-serious stupidity is more dangerous and includes practical jokes. The third level is worse than the first two when a person is not willing to think about the results or take responsibility for his actions.

    Question 9.
    Read the passage given below: (Delhi, All India 2016)

    People tend to amass possessions, sometimes without being aware of doing so. They can have a delightful surprise when they find something useful which they did not know they owned. Those who never have to change house become indiscriminate collectors of what can only be described as clutter. They leave unwanted objects in drawers, cupboards and attics for years in the belief that they may one day need them. Old people also accumulate belongings for two other reasons, lack of physical and mental energy, and sentiment. Things owned for a long time are full of associations with the past, perhaps with the relatives who are dead, and so they gradually acquire a sentimental value.

    Some things are collected deliberately in an attempt to avoid wastage. Among these are string and brown paper, kept by thrifty people when a parcel has been opened. Collecting small items can be mania. A lady cuts out from newspapers sketches of model clothes that she would like to buy if she had money. As she is not rich, the chances are that she will never be able to afford such purchases. It is a harmless habit, but it litters up her desk.

    Collecting as a serious hobby is quite different and has many advantages. It provides relaxation for leisure hours, as just looking at one’s treasure is always a joy. One doesn’t have to go out for amusement as the collection is housed at home. Whatever it consists of-stamps, records, first editions of books, china-there is always something to do in connection with it, from finding the right place for the latest addition to verifying facts in reference books. This hobby educates one not only in the chosen subject, but also in general matters which have some bearing on it.

    There are other benefits also. One gets to meet like-minded collectors to get advice, compare notes, exchange articles, to show off one’s latest find. So one’s circle of friends grows. Soon the hobby leads to travelling, perhaps a meeting in another town, possibly a trip abroad in search of a rare specimen, for collectors are not confined to one country. Over the years one may well become an authority on one’s hobby and will probably be asked to give informal talks to little gatherings and then, if successful, to larger audiences.

    (A) On the basis of your understanding of the above passage make notes on it using headings and sub-headings. Use recognizable abbreviations (wherever necessary-minimum four) and a format you consider suitable. Also supply an appropriate title to it. 5
    Answer:
    Title: Collection Versus Clutter Notes:
    1. Reasons why people amass possessions

    1.1 get delightful surprise in finding useful thing they did not know they had.
    1.2 Old people accumulate belongings v
    1.2.1 lack of phys. & mental energy & sentiment
    1.2.2 Things owned for long, full of assoc. with past-dead relatives-so they acquire sentimental value
    1.3 Indiscriminate collectors are those who never have to change house so their collection becomes clutter.

    2. Things collected deliberately to avoid wastage include-

    2.1 String & brown paper collected by thrifty people when they open a parcel.
    2.2 a lady cuts out sketches of model clothes she would buy if she had money
    2.3 but she will never be able to afford these as she is not rich
    2.4 her harmless habit litters her desk

    3. Collecting as serious hobby has many advantages

    3.1 provides relaxation for leisure hrs.
    3.2 looking at one’s treasure is always a joy
    3.3 One does not have to go out for amusement as collection is housed at home
    3.4 whatever the collection-stamps, records, china-always something to do in connection with it
    3.5 hobby educates us in the chosen subj. & gen. matters related to it

    4. Other benefits of collecting as hobby-

    4.1 One gets to meet like-minded collectors
    4.1.1 to get adv.
    4.1.2 compare notes
    4.1.3 exchange articles
    4.1.4 show off one’s latest find
    4.2 Soon hobby leads to travelling
    4.2.1 a meeting in another town
    4.2.2 a trip abroad to search a rare specimen
    4.2.3 collectors not confined to one country
    4.3 One likely to become authority on one’s hobby over the yrs.
    4.4 may probably be asked to give informed talks to little gatherings & later larger audiences.

    List of abbreviations used:

    v – because
    adv. – advice
    phys. – physical
    yrs. – years
    & – and
    hrs. – hours
    assoc. – association
    subj. – subject
    diff. – different
    gen. – general

    (B) Summary: People have a tendency to amass possessions, which might at times be described as clutter, due to the sentimental value attached to certain things. Sometimes accumulated belongings might litter up our desks. But collecting as a serious hobby has many advantages. It provides relaxation for leisure hours and there is always something to do in connection with it. It also gives one the opportunity to meet like-minded collectors. This hobby could lead to travelling and over the years when one becomes an authority on one’s hobby he could be asked to give informal talks to little gatherings and later larger audiences.

    Question 10.
    Read the passage given below carefully: (Comptt. Delhi, Comptt. All India 2016)
    1. Cholesterol is a waxy substance that is present in our body. It’s an important component of our cell walls and other tissues, but it is thought to be harmful if in excess. It can lead to blockages caused by plaque formation in the heart’s arteries causing heart disease and heart attacks. Such blockages can also happen in arteries, in the legs or in the brain. Cholesterol is produced in the liver, and the amount produced is influenced by our genes. The food we consume, too, has effect on cholesterol levels. Fatty foods, especially those high in saturated fats, and foods high in simple sugars such as cold drinks increase cholesterol levels. Lack of physical activity and exercise also leads to elevated levels.

    2. We can reduce cholesterol levels by following a heart-healthy lifestyle, which includes regular physical activity for at least 30 minutes daily and a diet high in fruits and vegetables and low in saturated sugar. Statins are a group of drugs most recommended for those with high cholesterol. Red yeast rice has been shown to be effective in lowering cholesterol. Include garlic and flaxseed in your daily diet. Olive oil, Canola oil or other oils rich in monounsaturated fatty acids can be used for cooking in order to reduce cholesterol through food.

    3. The ill-effects of high cholesterol take time to show, and you may not realise it until it’s a bit too late. Cholesterol, by itself is important because it insulates nerve cells and membranes. Being a fatty substance, it does not dissolve in the blood and is packaged into protein. There are ‘good’ HDL cholesterol and ‘bad’ LDL cholesterol. Bad cholesterol can stick to the smooth lining of the blood vessels, where it is absorbed, while HDL mops up excess bad cholesterol and removes it from blood vessels. Even moderate physical activity can help increase HDL cholesterol.

    4. Exercise five days a week, whether you are overweight or underweight. Aerobic exercises like walking, cycling, swimming, slow jogging, dancing etc. for 45 minutes, three times a week and anaerobic exercises like weight training, and sprinting, for another three days will help increase good and reduce bad cholesterol. In order to maximize your cardiovascular fitness, aerobic exercises
    should raise your heart rate to a certain level. This level is called your target heart zone. Keep your heart rate elevated for at least 20 minutes. Always warm-up, stretch, and cool down-relax-before and after any workout to avoid injuries. All these contribute to a healthier and fitter life.

    (A) On the basis of your reading of the above passage, make notes on it using headings and subheadings. Use recognisable abbreviations (wherever necessary-minimum four) and a format you consider suitable. Also, supply a title to it. 5
    (B) Write a summary of the passage in about 80 words. 3
    Answer:
    (A) Title: Good Cholesterol for a healthier life Notes:
    1. Impact

    1.1 leads to blockages
    1.2 causes heart diseases
    1.3 heart attacks

    2. Reasons

    2.1 plaque formation in arteries
    2.2 fatty foods
    2.2.1 high in sat. fats
    2.2.2 lack of phys. activity

    3. Solution/Remedies

    3.1 heart-healthy lifestyle
    3.1.1 reg. phys. activity
    3.1.2. diet high in fruits and veg.
    3.2 statins
    3.2.1 red yeast rice
    3.2.2 garlic & flaxseed
    3.2.3 olive oil, canola oil

    4. Types of cholesterol

    4.1 HDL – good
    4.2 LDL – bad

    5. For healthier & fitter life

    5.1 Exercise five days a week
    5.2 Aerobic exercises 45 mins, three times a week
    5.2.1 walking
    5.2.2 cycling
    5.2.3 swimming
    5.2.4 slow jogging
    5.2.5 dancing
    5.3 Anaerobic exercises three days a week
    5.3.1 wt. training
    5.3.2 sprinting

    List of abbreviations used:

    sat. – saturated
    phys. – physical
    reg. – regular
    veg. – vegetables
    & – and
    mins. – minutes
    wt. – weight

    (B) Summary: Cholesterol, waxy substance present in our body, is an important component of our cell walls and other tissues. If present in excess, it can be very harmful. Our cholesterol levels are affected by the food we consume. We can reduce cholesterol levels by leading a heart-healthy life, doing regular physical activity and eating a diet rich in fruits and vegetables. There are ‘good’ HDL cholesterol and ‘bad’ LDL cholesterol. To ensure an increase in our HDL level and to lead a healthier and fitter life, we must do aerobic and anaerobic exercises at least five times a week.

    Question 11.
    Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow: (Delhi, All India 2017)

    The most alarming of man’s assaults upon the environment is the contamination of air, earth, rivers and sea with lethal materials. This pollution is for the most part irrevocable; the chain of evil it initiates is for the most part irreversible. In this contamination of the environment, chemicals are the sinister partners of radiation in changing the very nature of the world; radiation released through nuclear explosions into the air, comes to the earth in rain, lodges into the soil, enters the grass or com, or wheat grown there and reaches the bones of a human being, there to remain until his death. Similarly, chemicals sprayed on crops lie long in soil, entering living organisms, passing from one to another in a chain of poisoning and death. Or they pass by underground streams until they emerge and combine into new forms that kill vegetation, sicken cattle, and harm those who drink from once pure wells.

    It took hundreds of millions of years to produce the life that now inhabits the earth and reached a state of adjustment and balance with its surroundings. The environment contained elements that were hostile as well as supporting. Even within the light of the sun, there were short-wave radiations with power to injure. Given time, life has adjusted and a balance reached. For time is the essential ingredient, but in the modem world there is no time.

    The rapidity of change and the speed with which new situations are created follow the heedless pace of man rather than the deliberate pace of nature. Radiation is no longer the bombardment of cosmic rays; it is now the unnatural creation of man’s tampering with the atom. The chemicals to which life is asked to make adjustments are no longer merely calcium and silica and copper and all the rest of the minerals washed out of the rocks and carried in the rivers to the sea; they are the synthetic creations of man’s inventive mind, brewed in his laboratories, and having no counterparts in nature.

    (A) On the basis of your understanding of the above passage, make notes on it using headings and sub-headings. Use recognizable abbreviations (wherever necessary- minimum four) and a format you consider suitable. Also supply a title to it. 5

    (B) Write a summary of the passage in about 80 words. 3
    Answer:
    (A) Title: Chemical Pollution of Environment Notes:
    1. Most alarming assault by man on environ.

    1.1 contamination of air, earth, rivers & sea with lethal materials
    1.2 this poll, irrevocable
    1.3 chain of evil initiated- irreversible

    2. Chem. are partners of radiation

    2.1 change nature of world
    2.2 radiation released through nuclear explosion into air
    2.3 comes to earth in rain
    2.4 lodges into soil
    2.5 enters grass, com or wheat grown there
    2.4 reaches human body

    3. Chem. sprayed on crops

    3.1 lie long in soil
    3.2 enter living orgms.
    3.3 passes from one to another-in chain of poisoning & death
    3.4 passes an underground stream to emerge
    3.5 combines into new forms

    4. Took millions of yrs. to produce life that inhabits earth

    4.1 has reached stage of adjustment
    4.2 balance with the surrounding
    4.3 environ, contains hostile & supportive elements

    5. Rapidity of change & speed-created new situations

    5.1 radiation not bombardment of cosmic rays
    5.2 unnatural creation of man’s tampering with atom
    5.3 chem. to which life has to make adjustments
    5.4 not only cal., silica & copper
    5.5 synthetic creations of man’s inventive mind
    5.6 brewed in lab.

    List of abbreviations used:

    environ – environment
    & – and
    Poll. – pollution
    chem. – chemical
    orgs. – organisms
    yrs. – years
    cal. – calcium
    lab. – laboratories

    (B) Summary: The chemical pollution that the environment is being subjected to by man is irrevocable and the chain of evil it starts is irreversible. Chemicals are partners of radiation that reach our body and remain there until we die. It has taken us millions of years to produce the life that inhabits the earth and the rapidity with which new situations are being created reveals man’s headless pace wherein he is tampering with the atom. The chemicals with which man has to make adjustments are not just the creations of his inventive mind but brewed in the laboratories, having no counterparts in nature.

    Question 12.
    Read the passage below: (Comptt. Delhi, Comptt. All India 2017)

    The Great Wall of China was built to link existing fortifications into a united defense system and better keep invading Mongol tribes out of China. It is the largest man-made monument ever to have been built . and it is said that it is the only one visible from space. Many thousands of people must have given their lives to build this huge construction.

    The Great Wall of China is a series of towers made of stone, brick, earth, wood and other materials, generally built along an east-to-west line across the historical northern borders of China to protect the Chinese states and empires against the raids and invasions of the various nomadic groups of the Eurasian Steppe. Several walls were being built as early as the 7th century BCE; these, later joined together and made bigger and stronger, are now collectively referred to as the Great Wall. Especially famous is the wall built (220-206 BCE) by Qin Shi Huang, the first Emperor of China. Little of that wall remains. Since then, the Great Wall has on and off been rebuilt, maintained and enhanced; the majority of the existing wall is from the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644).

    Other purposes of the Great Wall have included border controls, allowing the imposition of duties on goods transported along the Silk Road, regulation or encouragement of trade and the control of immigration and emigration. Furthermore, the defensive characteristics of the Great Wall were enhanced by the construction of watchtowers, troop barracks, garrison stations, signalling capabilities through the means of smoke or fire and the fact that the path of the Great Wall also served as a transportation corridor.

    The Great Wall stretches from Dandong in the east to Lop Lake in the west, along an arc that roughly delineates the southern edge of Inner Mongolia. A comprehensive archaeological survey, using advanced technologies, has concluded that the Ming walls measure 8,850 km. This is made up of 6,259 km sections of actual wall, 359 km of trenches and 2,232 km of natural defensive barriers such as hills and rivers. Another archaeological survey found that the entire wall with all of its branches measures out to be 21,196 km.

    King Zheng of Qin conquered the last of his opponents and unified China as the First Emperor of the Qin dynasty (“Qin Shi Huang”) in 221 BCE. Intending to impose centralized rule and prevent the resurgence of feudal lords, he ordered the destruction of some sections of the walls, however, he ordered a building of new walls to connect the remaining fortifications along the empire’s northern frontier. Transporting a large number of materials required for construction was difficult, so builders always tried to use local resources. Stones from the mountains were used over mountain ranges, while earth was used for construction in the plains. The Great Wall concept was revived under the Ming dynasty in the 14th century, to gain a clear upper hand over the Mongolian tribes.

    (A) On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it, using headings and subheadings. Use recognizable abbreviations (wherever necessary-minimum four) and a format you consider suitable. Also supply the appropriate title to it. 5

    (B) Write a summary of the passage in about 80 words. 2
    Answer:
    (A) Title: The Great Wall of China Notes:
    1. Introduction:

    1.1 largest man-made monument
    1.2 only one visible from space
    1.3 many gave their lives to build it
    1.4 series of towers made of stone, brick, earth, wood etc.

    2. Purpose of building The Great Wall of China:

    2.1 to link existing fort, into a united defence sys.
    2.2 keep invading Mongol tribes out of China
    2.3 have border control
    2.4 allow the imposition of duties on goods transp. along Silk Road
    2.5 regulation or encouragement of trade
    2.6 control of immigration &. emigration.

    3. Geog. facts:

    3.1 built along an east-to-west line across Northern China border
    3.2 protects Chinese states and empire against raids and invasions
    3.3 several walls built-in 7th cent. BCE
    3.4 later joined & made bigger & stronger
    3.5 stretches from Dandong in east to Lop Lake in west

    4. Hist, facts:

    4.1 built by Qin Shi Huang esp. famous
    4.2 little remains
    4.3 since then Great Wall has been rebuilt, maintained & enhanced
    4.4 Maj. of existing wall is from Ming dynasty

    5. Ming Wall-Archaeological survey concludes:

    5.1 measures 8,850 km.
    5.2 includes natural defence barriers like hills & rivers
    5.3 wall & branches measure 21,196 km

    List of abbreviations used:

    fort. – fortifications
    sys. – system
    Geog. – Geographical
    esp. – especially
    7th – Seventh
    km – Kilometer
    transp. – transported
    cent. – century
    Maj. – Majority
    &. – and
    Hist. – Historical

    (B) Summary: The Great Wall of China, the largest man-made monument and the only one visible from space, is a series of towers built along an east-to-west line across northern China border to protect Chinese states from invasions. Several walls which were built earlier were joined and made bigger and stronger are collectively referred to as the Great Wall. The wall built by the first emperor of China, Qin Shi Huang is especially famous, though little of that wall remains. Since then the Great wall has been rebuilt and enhanced. The majority of the existing wall is from the Ming Dynasty.

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