The Making of Global World VSAQ CBSE Class 10 Social Sciences
Q.1. What is globalisation ? [CBSE Sept. 2011, 2012]
Ans. Movement of people, goods and sen/ices across the nations has been termed as globalisation.
Q.2. What were silk routes ? [CBSE 2014]
Ans. These were the routes which knitted together vast regions of Asia and linked Asia with Europe and northern Africa. These routes are known to have existed since before the Christian Era and thrived almost till the 15th century.
Q.3. Define Rinderpest. [CBSE Sept. 2010, 2011, 2012]
Ans. Rinderpest, also referred to as “cattle plague” is a serious contagious disease of cattle. It is caused by a virus which is related to that of human measles, canine distemper, etc.
Q.4. ‘The pre-modem world shrank greatly in the 16th century”. Why ?
Ans. (i) Because European sailors found a sea route to Asia and successfully crossed the western ocean to America.
(ii) The Portuguese and the Spanish conquest and colonialisation of America was decisively under way by the mid-16th century.
Q.5. Who discovered America ?
Ans. Christopher Columbus.
Q.6. Name some of the important food items which travelled from far away places to India.
Ans. Potatoes, soya, ground nuts, maize, tomatoes, etc.
Q.7. What was the most powerful weapon of the Spanish conqueror to colonise America ?
Ans. The germs such as those of smallpox.
Q.8. What was the impact of germs on the America’s original inhabitants ?
Ans. America’s original inhabitants had no immunity against the disease. So it killed and decimated whole communities.
Q.9. Which two countries were among the world’s richest until the 18th century ?
Ans. China and India.
Q.10. What changed the world profoundly in the 19th century ?
Ans. Economic, political, social, cultural and technological factors interacted in complex ways to transform societies and reshape external relations.
Q.11. Mention any two factors which were responsible for price rise of food grains in Britain in the late 18th century.
Ans. Increase in population and restrictions on the import of food grains.
Q.12. What were Corn Laws ? Why these Laws were abolished ?
Ans. The laws allowing the British government to restrict the import of com were popularly known as the ‘Com Laws’. Unhappy with high food prices, industrialists and urban dwellers forced the abolition of the Com Laws.
Q-13. Name the countries which wore exporting food grains to Britain.
Ans. Russia, America and Australia.
Q.14. What steps were taken by the British government to improve agriculture in West Punjab ?
Ans. (i) A network of irrigation canals was built.
(ii) The canal colonies were settled by peasants from other parts of Punjab.
Q.15. What at the factors which transformed 19th century world ?
Ans. The railways steamship and the telegraph.
Q.16. What were the canal colonies ? Why and where they were set up ?
Ans. The semi-waste areas of Punjab, after being irrigated by new canals, began to be called canal colonies. They were created to grow wheat and cotton for export.
Q.17. ‘Till the 1870’s meat was an expensive luxury beyond the reach of the European poor”. Give reason.
Ans. Before 1870’s animals were shipped live from America to Europe and then slaughtered. Live animal took up a lot of ship space. Many also died in voyage, fell id, lost weight or became unfit to eat.
Q.18. Name the technology which enabled the transportation of perishable foods over
Ans. Refrigerated ships.
Q.19. Name any four colonial powers of the 19th century.
Ans. (i) Britain (ii) USA
(iii) France (iv) Germany
Q.20. Why most of the borders of African countries run straight ?
Ans. Most of the borders of African countries are straight because Africa was divided on paper in conference halls in Europe.
Q.21. Name the disease which had terrifying impact on people’s livelihoods and local economy of Africa during 1890’s.
Ans. Cattle plague or rinderpest.
Q.22. ‘Before the arrival of outsiders most of the Africans had a little reason to work for a wage’. Give reasons.
Ans. (i) Before the arrival of outsiders, Africa had abundant land and a relatively small population. Agriculture and animal rearing was the main occupation of the people. Most of the villages and families were self-sufficient.
(ii) In Africa, there were few consumer goods that wages could buy.
Q.23. Why were European attracted to Africa in die late 19th century ? Give one reason.
Ans. Due to its vast resources of land and minerals.
Q.24. How rinderpest arrived in Africa in the late 1880’s ? [CBSE 2014]
Ans. It was carried by infected cattle imported from British Asia to feed the Italian soldiers invading Eritrea in East Africa.
Q.25. Who was indentured labourer ?
Ans. A bounded labourer under contract to work for an employer for a specific amount of time, to pay off his passage to a new country or home.
Q.26. Name any four regions of India from where indentured workers came.
Ans. (i) Uttar Pradesh (ii) Tamil Nadu (iii) Bihar (iv) Central India
Q.27. What were the main destinations of Indian indentured migrants ?
Ans. Caribbean islands, Mauritius and Fiji.
Q.28. What is the meaning of ‘cultural fusion’? Give two examples. [CJBSE 2012]
Ans. Cultural fusion is a process under which two or more than two cultures intermingle and produce a new culture.
Q.29. How were the indentured workers exploited by the recruiting agents ?
Ans. They provided them false information about final destination, modes of travel, the nature of work and living and working conditions. Sometimes agents even forcibly abducted less willing wages.
Q.30. What was Hosay ? What was its importance ?
Ans. In Trinidad the annual Muharram procession was transferred into a riotous carnival called ‘Hosay’. It was one of the way to preserve the culture by indentured labourers.
Q-31. When and why was indentured labour migration abolished ?
Ans. It was abolished in 1921 as it was opposed by Indian leaders.
Q.32. Name any two Indian groups of bankers who financed export agriculture in Central and South-east Asia.
Ans. (i) Shikaripuri shroffs
(ii) Nattukottai Chettiars
Q.33. Why did the inflow of fine Indian cotton begin to decline in the 19th century ?
Ans. Tarrifs were imposed by the British government to protect local industries.
Q.34. Define ‘trade surplus’. Why Britain had a trade surplus with India ? [CBSE Sept. 2014]
Ans. It is a situation under which value of exports is more than imports. Britain had a ‘trade surplus’ because India was exporting food products to Britain which had less market value and it was importing finished goods which had higher market value.
Q.35. How was the income received from trade surplus with India used by Britain ? [CBSE 2008 (D)]
Ans. Britain’s trade surplus in India also helped to pay the so-called ‘home charges’ that included private remittances home by British officials and traders, interest payments on India’s external debt and pensions of British officials in India.
Q.36. “The First World War was the first modern industrial war”. Justify the answer.
Ans. The first modern industrial war. It saw the use of machine guns, tanks, aircraft, chemical weapons, etc. on a massive scale. These were all increasingly products of modem large-scale industry.
Q.37. The First World War was a war like no other before. Justify.
Ans: (i) The war included world’s leading industrial nations which now harnessed the vast powers of modem industry. –
(ii) The war was fought in air, on land and in water.
Q.38. Name any two countries which became major supplier of wheat during the First World War.
Ans. Canada, America and Australia.
Q.39. What was mass production ? Who was pioneer of mass production ? [CBSE 2014]
Ans. Production of goods on large-scale is known as mass production. Henry Ford was pioneer of mass production.
Q.40. Which was the world’s first mass produced car?
Ans. The T-Model.
Q.41. What was Henry Ford’s best cost cutting decision ?
Ans. Under this he doubled the wages of workers but recovered the loss by speeding up the production line.
Q.42. ‘The agricultural regions and communities were the worst affected by the Great Depression of 1929’. Give one reason.
Ans. This was because the fall in agricultural prices was greater and more prolonged than that in the prices of industrial goods.
Q.43. Name the economist who thought that India gold exports during the Great Depression of 1929 promoted global economic recovery.
Ans. John Maynard Keynes.
Q.44. Name the movement launched by Gandhiji during the Great Depression of 1929.
Ans. Civil Disobedience Movement
Q.45. Which two crucial influences, shaped post-war reconstruction ?
Ans. (i) USA emerged as the dominant economic, political and military power in the western world.
(ii) Dominance of the Soviet Union.
Q.46. Name any two world institutions which were established under the Bretton Woods. Also mention one objective of each. [CBSE 2014]
Ans. (i) International Monetary Fund.
(ii) World Bank.
Q.47. What was the main aim of the post-war international economic system in the world ?
Ans. Economic stability and full employment.
Q.48. Why were IMF and International Bank for Reconstruction and Development formed ?
Ans. (i) IMF-To deal with external surpluses and deficits of its member nations.
(ii) IBRD – To finance post-war reconstruction.
Q.49. What is difference between international momentary system and the Bretton Woods system?
Ans. The international monetary system is the system linking national currencies and monetary system whereas the Bretton Woods system was based on fixed exchange rates.
Q.50. What were the limitations of IMF and the World Bank ? Mention any two.
Ans. (i) They were not equipped to cope with the challenge of poverty and lack of development in the former colonies.
(ii) They were controlled by USA as it had veto power.
Q.51. Why China and other Asian countries became attractive destination for investment by foreign MNC’s ?
Ans. This is because of the low cost structure of Chinese economy, most importantly its low wages.
Q.52. What is G-77 ?
Ans. The G-77 is a loose coalition of developing nations, designed to promote its members collective economic interests and create an enhanced joint negotiating capacity for the United Nations. There were 77 founding members, but the organisation has since expanded to 130 member countries.