Q.1. Mention any three social or political values reflected by federalism.
Ans. (i) Federalism works on the principle of power-sharing which leads to social peace.
(ii) Federal system has a dual objective, i.e., to safeguard and promote the unity of the country, while at the same time accommodating regional diversity.
(iii) An ideal federal system has an important aspect like mutual trust and agreement to live together.
Q.2. Mention any four major values which are reflected by federalism in India.
Ans. (i) Formation of linguistic states has made the country more united.
(ii) While framing the language policy Indian federal system has shown flexibility. Our Constitution has not given the status of national language to any of the languages.
(iii) Some seats in the Lok Sabha and State Legislative Assemblies are reserved for SC and ST. This reflects the principle of equality.
(iv) One-third seats of all positions are reserved
for women leading to women empowerment.
Q.3. Explain the values reflected by the principle of decentralisation in India.
Ans. (i) Through decentralisation people at the local level participate in decision-making. This strengthens the spirit of democracy.
(ii) Constitutional status for local government has helped to deepen democracy in our country.
(iii) It has also increased women’s representation and voice in democracy.
Q.4. “Local governments have made a significant impact on Indian democracy. At the same time, there are many difficulties.” Explain. [CBSE 2012]
Ans. (1) Impacts :
(i) Constitutional status for local governments has helped to deepen democracy.
(ii) It has increased women’s representation and voice in our democracy.
(2) Difficulties :
(i) Gram Sabhas are not held regularly.
(ii) Most state governments have not transferred significant powers to local governments.
(iii) State governments have not provided adequate resources.
Q.5. Should Panchayats be given judicial power to punish the anti-social elements of their area? Give your suggestions with arguments. [CBSE 2014]
Ans. No panchayats should not be given such powers ‘
(i) They do not have the required resources.
(ii) It is the judiciary that has the power to decide whether a person is guilty or not.