Geography CBSE Class 10 Forest and Wild Resources SAQ
Q.1. What is biodiversity ? [CBSE Sept. 2012]
Ans. Biodiversity is the sum total of all the varieties of species of plants, animals and micro-organisms living on the earth. It also includes the habitat in which they live. Some scientists estimate that more than 10 million species live on our earth and some believe that this number can be more than 100 million.
Q.2. What is importance of forests ?
“Forests play a key role in the ecological system.” Highlight the value of forests in our life. [CBSE Sept. 2013]
Why is it necessary to increase the area of forest in India ? [CBSE 2013]
Ans. (i) Forests play a key role in the ecological system as these are the primary producers on which all other living beings depend.
(ii) Many forest dependent communities directly depends on them for food, drink, medicine, culture, spirituality etc.
(iii) Forest provide us timber.
(iv) Forests also provide bamboo, wood for fuel, grass, charcoal, fruits, flowers, etc.
Q.3. “The diverse flora and fauna of India is under threat”. Justify by giving reasons.
Ans. (i) At least 10% of India’s recorded wild flora and 20% of its mammals are on the threatened list.
(ii) The cheetah, pink-headed duck, mountain quail, forest spotted owlet, and plants like madhuca insignis (a wild variety of mahua) and hubbardia heptaneuron (a species of grass) have already been categorised as critical, i.e. they are on the verge of extinction.
(iii) Many smaller animals like insects and plants have become extinct.
Q.4. What are Normal species ? How are these different from endangered species. Give four examples.
Ans. Normal species are the species whose population levels are considered to be normal for their survival, such as cattle, sal, pine, rodents, etc.
Whereas the endangered species are the species which are in danger of extinction. The survival of such species is difficult if the negative factors that have led to a decline in their population continue to operate. Black buck, crocodile, Indian wild ass, Indian rhino, lion tailed macaque, etc., are examples of endangered species.
Q.5. What are Vulnerable species ? Give four examples. [CBSE Sept.‘2012]
Ans. These are the species whose population has declined to levels from where it is likely to move into the endangered category in the near future if the negative factors continue to operate such species. The examples of such species are Blue sheep, Asiatic elephant, Gangetic dolphin, etc.
Q.6. What are Rare species ? Give four examples. [CBSE Sept. 2012]
Ans. Species with small population may move into the endangered or vulnerable category if the negative factors affecting them continue to operate. The examples of such species are the Himalayan brown bear, Wild Asiatic buffalo, Desert fox and hombill, etc.
Q.7. What are Endemic species ? Give four examples.
Ans. The species which are only found in some particular region usually isolated by natural or geographical barriers. The examples of such species are the Andaman teal, Nicobar pigeon, Andaman wild pig, etc.
Q.8. What are Extinct species ? Give four examples.
Ans. These species which are not found after searches of known or likely areas where they may occur. These species may be extinct from a local area, region, country, continent or the whole earth. The examples of such species are the Asiatic cheetah, pink headed duck, etc.
Q.9. Large scale development projects have also contributed significantly to the loss of forests. Explain.
Ans. .(i) Since 1951, over 5,000 square kilometres of forests were cleared for river valley projects.
(ii) Clearing of forests is still continuing because of new projects like the Sardar Sarovar Project, the Ranjit Sagar Dam Project, etc. Many wildlife sanctuaries are seriously threatened due to large scale mining activities.
Q.10. (i) Which factor is often cited as the cause of environmental degradation in the third world countries ?
(ii) Mention any four factors which have led to the decline of India’s biodiversity.
Ans. (i) Overpopulation.
(ii) (a) Habitat destruction
(e) Environmental pollution
(f) Forest fires.
Q.11. “Developed countries and rich people are considered the major factors for environmental degradation.” Explain.
Ans. (i) Developed countries consume more resources than underdeveloped or developing countries. For example an average American consumes 40 times more resources than an average Somalian.
(ii) The rich class probably causes more ecological damage than the poor class because energy consumption level of the rich is high as compared to poor.
(iii) Rich people use non-renewable resources on a large scale.
Q.12. “Grazing and fuel-wood collection are not responsible for deforestation in India.” Support the statement with suitable reasons. [CBSE 2013]
Ans. (i) Overgrazing destroys the saplings and plants are tom out by the roots by animals.
(ii) Overgrazing also leads to soil erosion. Soil erosion is one of the important factor for deforestation.
(iii) While collecting fuel wood the locals also destroy the trees, which leads to deforestation.
Q.13. “The conservation projects are now focusing on biodiversity rather than on a few of its components.” Explain.
Ans. (i) Inclusion of small insects and other animals in planning : Under the new plans, even insects and other smaller species of animals are beginning to find a place in conservation planning.
(ii) New notifications : In the notification under the Wildlife Act of 1980 and 1986, several hundred butterflies, moths, beetles, and one dragonfly have been added to the list of protected species. In 1991, for the first time, plants were also added to the list, starting with six species.
Q.14. With reference to the type and distribution of forests, answer the following questions :
(i) How are they classified ?
(ii) Which type of forests are regarded most valuable as far as the conservation of forest and wildlife resources are concerned ?
Ans. (i) (a) Reserved forests
(b) Protected forests
(c) Unclassed forests.
(ii) Reserved forests.
Q.15 Define the following :
(i) Reserved forests
(ii) Protected forests
(iii) Unclassed forests
How many types of forests are classified in India ? Explain. [CBSE Sept. 2010]
Ans. (i) Reserved forests : These are forests which are permanently earmarked either to the production of timber or other forest produce and in which right of grazing and cultivation is seldom allowed.
(ii) Protected forests : These are forests in which the right of grazing and cultivation are allowed subject to a few minor restrictions.
(iii) Unclassed forests : These consist largely of inaccessible forests or unoccupied wastes.
Q.16. (a) What was the Chipko Movement ?
(b) What is JFM ? What is its objective ?
(c) Name the state which took initiative for the Joint Forest Management.
Ans. (a) (i) The movement was launched in the Himalayas against deforestation.
(ii) The movement has also shown the community afforestation with indigenous species can be enormously successful.
(iii) The movement has highlighted the role of local communities in forest conservations.
(b) It is Joint Forest Management. It is programme which involves local communities in the management and restoration of degraded forests.
Q.17. (i) Name any two states which have the largest area under permanent forests (ii) Name any four states which have a large area under reserved forests.
(ii) Name any four states which have the large area under unclassed forests.
Ans. (i) (a) Madhya Pradesh
(ii) (a) Jammu and Kashmir
(b) Andhra Pradesh
(iii) (a) Gujarat
Q-18. ‘India has rich flora and fauna.’ Explain.
Ans. (i) India is one of the world’s richest countries in terms of its vast array of biological diversity.
(ii) It has nearly 8% of the total number of species in the world. (1.6 million approximately.)
(iii) Of the estimated 47,000 plant species, about 15,000 flowering species are indigenous to India.
Q-19- Mining is one of the major important factors responsible for deforestation. Explain.
Ans. (i) Mining operation needs big machines, labour, roads, railways, etc. All these lead to deforestation.
(ii) The Buxar Tiger Reserve in West Bengal is seriously threatened due to mining operations. The mining operations have caused severe ecological damage to the Reserve and region around.
(iii) The mining activities have blocked the migration route of several species, including the great Indian elephants, thus, disturbing their natural habitat.
Q.20. What are the main objectives of JFM ? [CBSE Sept. 2012, 2014]
Ans. (i) Under the Joint Forest Management programme, local communities are involved in the management and restoration of degraded forests.
(ii) The major purpose of the JFM is to protect the forests from encroachments, grazing, theft and fire and also to improve the forests in accordance with an approved Joint Forest Management plan.
(iii) In return, the members of these communities are entitled to intermediary benefits like non-timber forest produces.
Q.21. Highlight any three differences between endangered species and extinct species. [CBSE Sept. 2010]
Q.22 What has been the contribution of the Indian Wildlife Protection Act in protecting habitats in India ? Explain. [CBSE Sept. 2010, 2011]
Ans. (i) An all-India list of protected species was published. The thrust of the programme was towards protecting the remaining population of certain endangered species by banning hunting, giving legal protection to their habitats, and restricting trade in wildlife.
(ii) The central government also announced several projects for protecting specific animals, which were grately threatened, including the tiger, the one-horned rhinoceros, the Kashmir stag or hangul, three types of crocodiles—fresh water crocodile, saltwater crocodile and the Gharial, the Asiatic lion, and others.
(iii) Many national parks, wildlife sanctuaries and bioreserves were established to protect and conserve the wildlife.
Q.23. How does biological loss of forest and wildlife correlate with loss of cultural diversity? [CBSE Sept. 2010, 2011]
Ans. (i) Biological loss of forest and wildlife has increasingly marginalised and impoverished many indigenous and other forest dependent communities, who directly depend on various components of the forest and wildlife for food, drink, medicine, culture, spirituality, etc.
(ii) The indirect impact of degradation such as severe drought or deforestation-induced floods, etc., also hits the poor the hardest. Poverty in these cases is a direct outcome of environmental destruction.
(iii) Due to biological loss of forest and wildlife many tribal communities have disappeared.
Q.24. “Nature-worship is an old age belief”. Explain how has it helped in the conservation of forests and wildlife. [CBSE Sept. 2013]
Ans. (i) Nature-worship is an age old tribal belief based on the premise that all creations of nature have to be protected. Such beliefs have preserved several virgin forests in pristine form called Sacred Groves (the forests of God and Goddesses}. These patches of forest or parts,of large forests have been left untouched by the local people and any interference with them is banned.
(ii) The Mundas and the Santhal of Chota Nagpur region worship mahua (Bassia latifolia) and kadamba (Anthocaphalus cadamba) trees, and the tribals of Odisha and Bihar worship the tamarind (Tamarindus indica) and mango (Mangifera indica) trees during weddings.
(iii) Peepal and banyan trees are also considered sacred and worshipped in most parts of India.
(iv) Sacred qualities are often ascribed to springs, mountain peaks, plants and animals which are closely protected.
(v) In and around Bishnoi villages in Rajasthan, herds of blackbuck, (chinkara), nilgai and peacocks can be seen as an integral part of the community and nobody harms them.
Q.25. What is Himalayan Yew ? Why is it under great threat at present ? [CBSE 2012]
Ans. The Himalayan Yew is a medicinal plant which is found in various parts of Himachal Pradesh and Arunachal Pradesh.
(i) It is under great threat due to over-exploitation.
(ii) A chemical compound called ‘taxol’ is extracted from the bark, needles, twigs and roots of this tree.
(iii) So, it is now biggest selling anti-cancer drug in the world.