Study MaterialsCBSE NotesPolitical Science Class 12 Important Questions Chapter 12 Politics of Planned Development

Political Science Class 12 Important Questions Chapter 12 Politics of Planned Development

 

Political Science Class 12 Important Questions Chapter 12 Politics of Planned Development

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    Question 1.
    Who is the ex-officio chairperson of the Planning Commission of India? (All India 2013)
    Answer:
    Prime Minister of India

    Question 2.
    What was ‘Bombay Plan’? (All India 2013)
    Answer:
    A section of the big industrialists got together in 1944 and drafted a joint proposal for setting up a planned economy in the country. It was called the Bombay Plan. They wanted the state to take major initiatives in industrial and other economic investments.

    Question 3.
    What was significant about PC Mahalanobis? (All India 2013)
    OR
    Who was PC Mahalanobis? (Delhi 2009)
    Answer:
    P. C. Mahalanobis was the founder of Indian Statistical Institute (1931). He was chief architect of Second Five Year Plan. He supported rapid industrialisation and active role of the public sector.

    Question 4.
    Who was popularly known as ‘the milkman of India’? (All India 2013)
    Answer:
    Verghese Kurein was popularly known as the milkman of India.

    Question 5.
    What was the main objective of the second Five Year Plan? (All indin 2012)
    Answer:
    The main objective of the second five year plan was quick structural transformation by rapid industrialisation.

    Question 6.
    When was India’s New Economic Policy launched? Who was its chief architect? (All India 2009)
    Answer:
    India’s New economic policy was launched in 1999. Its chief architect was Dr. Manmohan Singh.

    2 Marks Questions

    Question 1.
    Differentiate between the capitalist and the socialist models of development. (HOTS; All India 2014)
    Answer:
    The capitalist economic model allows free market conditions to drive innovation and wealth creation. The socialist-based economy incorporates elements of centralised economic planning, utilised to ensure conformity and to encourage equality of opportunity and economic outcome.

    Question 2.
    Differentiate between the main objective of the First and the Second Five Year PlAnswer: (Delhi 2014)
    Answer:
    There were some differences between First and Second Five Year Plan which are elaborated below (any two) :

    1. The First Five Year Plan totally focussed on agriculture whereas Second on industrial sector.
    2. The First Five Year plan started all round balanced development which would ensure increase in level of national income 22.6 per cent allocation was done on education, health, housing etc whereas Second Plan reflected the goal of socialist pattern of society and it allocated only 19.7 per cent on social services.
    3. First Five Year plan allocated 15 per cent on agriculture, 17 per cent on irrigation and food control whereas. Second Five Year Plan allocated only 11.8 per cent on agriculture and 10 per cent on irrigation and food control.

    Question 3.
    What is meant by decentralised planning? (All India 2014, 2012)
    Answer:
    Decentralised planning is a strategy to involve people directly in development activities through voluntary citizens’ organisations. The state also takes initiatives to involve people in making plants at the panchayat, block and district level.

    Question 4.
    Mention any two merits of Green Revolution. (All India 2013)
    Answer:
    The two merits of Green Revolution were :

    1. After launching this revolution, India achieved self-sufficiency in food production. Poor farmers also get benefit from this revolution.
    2. Due to this, the states of Punjab, Haryana and Western Uttar Pradesh flourished more and here the living standards also improved.

    Thus, first socially, then politically and economically the status of farmers in these states was risen.

    Question 5.
    Which are the two models of development? Which model of development was adopted by India? (Delhi 2013)
    Answer:
    The two models of development are :

    1. The liberal capitalist model as it was in much in Europe and US.
    2. Socialist model as it was in USSR. India adopted a mid way path of both the models i.e. mixed economics.

    Question 6.
    Write the meaning and importance of economic planning in the Indian context. (All India 2009)
    Answer:
    Planning always plays a crucial role in the economic development of the country. Economic Planning is a strategy to achieve the goal of economic development by pursuing a policy of planned economy. Planning opens new opportunities for development for people and also enhance the standard of living.

    4 Marks Questions

    Question 1.
    Evaluate the major outcomes of the Indian model of mixed economy. (All India 2016)
    OR
    Critically examine the major outcomes of the Indian model of mixed economy. (HOTS; Delhi 2016)
    Answer:
    The major outcomes of the Indian model of mixed economy :

    • Private sectors and public sectors flourished well.
    • State controlled the key industries and provided industrial infrastructure.
    • The enlarged public sector provided powerful vasted interests that built enough hurdles for private capital by way of installing the license and permit system.
    • The state intervened into areas where private soctor made profits. The policy of state restricted import of goods and production in the domestic market.

    Question 2.
    Which two models of modern development were there before India on the eve of independence? Which model did India decide to choose and why? (Delhi 2015)
    Answer:
    On the eve of Independence, India had two models of modern development before it, they were the liberal-capitalist model as in much of Europe and the US and the socialist model as in the USSR. India decided to choose socialist model of USSR because :

    1. There were many in India then who were deeply impressed by the soviet model of development.
    2. These included not just the leaders of the Communist Party of India but also those of the socialist party and leaders like Nehru within the Congress.

    Question 3.
    Describe the strategy adopted by the Government of India to promote the Green Revolution, (All India 2015)
    Answer:
    Following strategies were adopted by Government of India to promote the Green Revolution :

    • The New Agricultural strategy was adopted in India during the Third Five Year Plan i.e. during 1960.
    • The government decided to shift the strategy followed in agricultural sector of the country.
    • The government introduced a pilot project known as Intensive Area Development Programme (IADP) in selected areas.
    • In Kharif season, in 1966, India adopted High Yielding Varieties Programme (HYVP) for the first time.

    Question 4.
    Explain any two merits and two demerits each of the Green Revolution. (Delhi 2015)
    OR
    List any two merits and two demerits of the Green Revolution. (Delhi 2014)
    OR
    Highlight any two positive and two negative outcomes of the Green Revolution. (All India 2010)
    Answer:
    For merits of Green Revolution
    The two merits of Green Revolution were :

    1. After launching this revolution, India achieved self-sufficiency in food production. Poor farmers also get benefit from this revolution.
    2. Due to this, the states of Punjab, Haryana and Western Uttar Pradesh flourished more and here the living standards also improved.

    Thus, first socially, then politically and economically the status of farmers in these states was risen.

    Demerit/Negative Outcomes

    1. This revolution created a valley between poor farmer and richer ones. Discrimination and exploitation of poor farmers by the landlords became a wide set practice. Some political parties started politics on it and managed seats in Assemblies and Lok Sabha elections.
    2. This revolution also increased the power of middleman who worked as mediators between poor farmers and affluent landlords.

    Therefore the middleman created a condition due to which farmers were impoverished. The political strength of the middleman also increased.

    Question 5.
    State any two differences between the First Five Year Plan and the Second Five Year Plan. (All India 2015. Delhi 2013)
    Answer:
    There were some differences between First and Second Five Year Plan which are elaborated below (any two) :

    1. The First Five Year Plan totally focussed on agriculture whereas Second on industrial sector.
    2. The First Five Year plan started all round balanced development which would ensure increase in level of national income 22.6 percent allocation was done on education, health, housing, etc whereas Second Plan reflected the goal of socialist pattern of society and it allocated only 19.7 percent on social services.
    3. First Five Year plan allocated 15 percent on agriculture, 17 percent on irrigation and food control whereas. Second Five Year Plan allocated only 11.8 percent on agriculture and 10 percent on irrigation and food control.

    Question 6.
    Describe any four consequences of the Green Revolution? (Delhi 2015)
    Answer:
    For merits of Green Revolution
    The two merits of Green Revolution were :

    1. After launching this revolution, India achieved self-sufficiency in food production. Poor farmers also get benefit from this revolution.
    2. Due to this, the states of Punjab, Haryana and Western Uttar Pradesh flourished more and here the living standards also improved.

    Thus, first socially, then politically and economically the status of farmers in these states was risen.

    Demerit/Negative Outcomes

    1. This revolution created a valley between poor farmer and richer ones. Discrimination and exploitation of poor farmers by the landlords became a wide set practice. Some political parties started politics on it and managed seats in Assemblies and Lok Sabha elections.
    2. This revolution also increased the power of middleman who worked as mediators between poor farmers and affluent landlords.

    Therefore the middleman created a condition due to which farmers were impoverished. The political strength of the middleman also increased.

    Question 7.
    Match the following: (Delhi, 2012)

    (a) Ch. Charan Singh (i) Industrialisation
    (b) P.C. Mahalanobis (ii) Zoning
    (c) Bihar Famine (iii) Farmers
    (d) Varghese Kurien (iv) Milk Cooperatives

    Answer:

    (a) Ch. Charan Singh (iii) Farmers
    (b) P.C. Mahalanobis (i) Industrialization
    (c) Bihar Famine (ii) Zoning
    (d) Verghese Kurien (iv) Milk-Cooperatives

    Question 8.
    Match the following: (Delhi 2012)

    (a) Operation Flood (i) 1961
    (b) Bombay Plan (ii) 1970
    (c) First Five Year Plan (iii) 1944
    (d) Third Five Year Plan (iv) 1951

    Answer:

    (a) Operation Flood (ii) 1970
    (b) Bombay Plan (iii) 1944
    (c) First Five Year Plan (iv) 1951
    (d) Third Five Year Plan (i) 1961

    Question 9.
    How was the Planning Commission of India set up? Mention its scope of work. (All India 2010)
    Answer:
    The Planning Commission was set-up by a simple resolution passed by Government of India in March 1950.
    The Planning Commission has a advisory role and its recommendations become effective when government approves them.
    Scope of Work of Planning Commission
    The Planning Commission drafts the Five Year Plans for India keeping all resources in mind when it is drafted. The resolution which set-up the commission defined the scope of its work in the following terms:

    1. The Constitution of India has guaranteed certain Fundamental Rights to the citizens of India.
    2. It enunciated certain Directive Principles of State Policy in particular. According to it, the state shall strive to promote the welfare of the people by sfecuring and protecting a social, order in which justice, social economic and political shall direct its policy towards securing among other things.

    Question 6.
    What led the policy-makers to reduce the importance of state in India’s economy from 1980s onwards? (Delhi 200B; All India 2008)
    Answer:
    Following factors led to reduce the importance of state in India’s economy from 1980s onwards:

    1. The period’of 1980s is seen as a period of rising regional aspirations for autonomy, often outside the framework of the Indian Union.
    2. Movements for autonomy involved armed assertions by the people, their repression by the government, and a collapse of the political and electoral processes.
    3. Most of those movements were long drawn and concluded in negotiated settlements or accords between the Central Government and the groups leading the movement for autonomy.

    6 Marks Questions

    Question 1.
    Examine the different areas of agreement and disagreement with respect to the model of economic development to be adopted in India after independence, (HOTS; Delhi 2016)
    Answer:
    Agreement of Economic Model After independence, there were lot of discussion with respect to the model of economic development to be adopted in India. ‘Development’ was about becoming more ‘modern’ and modern was about becoming more like the industrialised countries of the West.

    Indian planners did not follow any of the two known models of development i.e. capitalist model of development and socialist model of development.

    India adopted both elements of these models that is why Indian economy is called Mixed Economy. Private sectors and public sectors flourished well. In India, state controlled the key industries and provided industrial infrastructure.

    Disagreement of the Economic Model A mixed economy was criticised by many scholars and they argued that the planners had refused the private sector with enough space and the stimulus to grow. The enlarged public sector provided powerful vested interests that built enough hurdles for private capital by way of installing the license and permit systems.

    Some critics have opinion that the era of public sectors where poverty did not decline even number of poor were adversally increased. The public sector did not spend much money on health care and education.

    The state intervened into areas where private sector made profits. The policy of state restricted import of goods and production in the domestic market. Little or no companion left the private sector with no incentive to improve their products and make them cheaper.

    After all this criticism government adopted the policy of globalisation, liberalisation and privatisation in 1991. This policy is called new economy policy where private firms enjoy their independence and government interferes only in economic matters.

    Question 2.
    Assess the outcomes of the early phase of planned development in India. (All India 2016,2013)
    OR
    Assess the outcome of planned development towards the foundation of India’s economic growth and land reforms. Delhi 2011
    Answer:
    In 1938, Indian National Congress set-up a Planning Committee to formulate a plan for the development of India’s future. After independence in April, 1951 India adopted the planned development procedure. It was felt that the procedure of planned development created a sound economic development and land reform.

    Some points which relates with the planned development towards the foundation of India’s economic growth and land reforms are mentioned below :

    1. In 1950, Government of India passed a resolution and set-up the Planning Commission to prepare a plan for the most effective and balanced utilisation of the countries resources.
    2. The Planning Commission initiated the process of development which would increase the living standard and provide new opportunities.
    3. According to the long term objectives laid originally, it was to double the per capita income and to raise communication standards by 70% by 1977.
    4. The First Five Year Plan brought with it an era of a planned country with total outlay of ? 2249 crore which had two fold aims.
    5. The revolution like green revolution attained the record of production of food up to 75.6 million tonnes.
    6. The Kerala model was also very effective in terms of land reforms, public distribution system, poverty alleviation, health and literacy rates.
    7. Zamindari systems was abolished, consequently, lands were distributed among the landless farmers.
    8. Also White Revolution and Blue Revolution raised the development of country.
    9. In 1990, we adopted the mixed economy due to this planning of development increased and allowed investment in public sectors also.
    10. Research work, technologies in field of agriculture has been adopted therefore, India became self sufficient in food.
    11. In 1991, Indian Government adopted the new economy policy i.e., globalisation, privatisation and liberalisation. It helped a lot in development. Thus, the planning led to India’s growth in terms of literacy, intrastructures moreover in GDP.

    Question 3.
    Describe briefly the composition and any four functions of the Planning Commission of India. (All India 2011)
    Answer:
    Composition of Planning Commission :

    • The Prime Minister of India is the chairman of the commission.
    • The commission has a deputy chairman.
    • The finance minister and planning minister are the ex-officio members of the commission.
    • The commission has four to seven full time expert members.

    Four Functions of the Planning Commission are :

    1. To make an assessment of material, capital and human resources of the country and investigate the possibilities of augmenting them.
    2. To formulate a plan for the most effective and balanced utilisation of the country’s resources.
    3. To determine priorities and to define stages in which the plan should be carried out.
    4. To indicate the factors that retard economic development.

    Note: Planning commission no more exists today. It has been replaced by NITI Aayog (National Institution for Transforming India).

    Question 4.
    What were the early initiatives taken by the Planning Commission for building a new India? (All India 2011)
    Answer:
    After the independence India was suffering from poverty, literacy rate was very low. Therefore, Government of India passed a resolution and set-up a Planning Commission in March 1950. The Planning Commission planned a structure of development in terms of five Years Plans and mixed economic policy.

    First Five Year Plan The First Five Year Plan emphasised on agricultural sector, dams, irrigation facilities. It also increased the literacy rate. It focused on saving, therefore the per capita income was increased.

    Second Five Year Plan The Second Five Year Plan focused on industrial development and infrastructural development. So that agricultural sector also grew to meet the demand of agricultural products in industries.

    Mixed Economic Policy India adopted the mixed economic policy. Therefore, the two sectors private and public could do better in development of India. The state controlled the heavy industries and provided industrial infrastructure, regulated trade and some important intervention in agriculture. This all buildup a new India.

    Question 5.
    What was Green Revolution?
    Mention its any two positive and any two negative consequences. (Delhi 2012,2008; All India 2011,2008)
    Answer:
    It was a governmental approach towards reforms in agricultural sectors to attain rapid growth in production of agriculture. Because Indian agriculture, which had been stagnant and asleep for centuries needed a revolution and this government initiative is known as green revolution. Its aim was to – ensure self-sufficiency in foodgrain production. It took place in Third Five Year Plan. It had some essentials

    • Use of chemical fertilisers.
    • Use of HYV seeds.
    • Use of better irrigation planning.
    • Use of developed tools for farming.

    Positive Consequences
    For merits of Green Revolution the two merits of Green Revolution were :

    1. After launching this revolution, India achieved self-sufficiency in food production. Poor farmers also get benefit from this revolution.
    2. Due to this, the states of Punjab, Haryana and Western Uttar Pradesh flourished more and here the living standards also improved.

    Thus, first socially, then politically and economically the status of farmers in these states was risen.

    Demerit/Negative Outcomes

    1. This revolution created a valley between poor farmer and richer ones. Discrimination and exploitation of poor farmers by the landlords became a wide set practice. Some political parties started politics on it and managed seats in Assemblies and Lok Sabha elections.
    2. This revolution also increased the power of middleman who worked as mediators between poor farmers and affluent landlords.

    Therefore the middleman created a condition due to which farmers were impoverished. The political strength of the middleman also increased.

    Negative Consequences
    For merits of Green Revolution the two merits of Green Revolution were :

    1. After launching this revolution, India achieved self-sufficiency in food production. Poor farmers also get benefit from this revolution.
    2. Due to this, the states of Punjab, Haryana and Western Uttar Pradesh flourished more and here the living standards also improved.

    Thus, first socially, then politically and economically the status of farmers in these states was risen.

    Demerit/Negative Outcomes

    1. This revolution created a valley between poor farmer and richer ones. Discrimination and exploitation of poor farmers by the landlords became a wide set practice. Some political parties started politics on it and managed seats in Assemblies and Lok Sabha elections.
    2. This revolution also increased the power of middleman who worked as mediators between poor farmers and affluent landlords.

    Therefore the middleman created a condition due to which farmers were impoverished. The political strength of the middleman also increased.

    Value Based Questions [VBQs]

    Question 1.
    What led policy-makers to reduce the importance of state in India’s economy from 1980’s onwards? (Delhi 2008; All India 2008)
    Answer:
    The following facts are responsible which led policy-makers reduce the importance of state in India’s economy from 1980 onwards:

    1. The story of development in India took a significant turn from the end of 1960s. After Nehru’s death the Congress system encountered difficulties. Indira Gandhi emerged as a popular leader. She decided to further strengthen the role of the state in controlling and directing the economy.
    2. The period from 1967 onwards witnessed many new restrictions on private industry and the government announced many pro-poor programmes. These changes accompanied by an ideological tilt towards socialist policies.
    3. However, the consensus for a state-led economic development did not last forever. Planning did continue but its salience was significantly reduced.
    4. Between 1950 and 1980 the Indian economy grew at a sluggish per annum rate of 3 to 3.5 per cent. In view of the prevailing inefficiency and corruption in some public sector enterprises and the not-so-positive role of the bureaucracy in economic development, the public opinion in the country last the faith in many of these institution. Such lack of public faith led the policy-makers to reduce the importance of the state in India’s economy from the 1980 onwards.

    Question 2.
    Explain the main arguments in the debate that ensued between industrialisation and agricultural development at the time of Second Five Year Plan. (All India 2012)
    OR
    Examine the controversy regarding Agriculture vs Industry in India after the 2nd Five Year Plan. (Delhi (C) 2008)
    Answer:
    The dispute between the agriculture and industry are as follows:

    1. The Second Plan that is Nehru-MAllalanobis Plan emphasised on the heavy industries and focussed less on agricultural sector. It declared the socialist pattern of society as its goal. The Second Plan emphasised on savings and investment. A bulk of industries like electricity, railways steel etc developed.
    2. The Second Five Year Plan mainly believed in the scientific manner of research and believed in modernity. This may cause the decline of agriculture.
    3. The Second Plan led towards generating the employment and establishment of industries. Nehru-MAllalanobis Plan stated that through the industrialisation poverty alleviation is possible.
    4. Agriculture needed urgent attention because it was hit by partition. But plans were made on the pattern of land distribution.
      It focused on the land reforms as the key to the country’s development.
    5. The agricultural situation went from bad to worse in the 1960s. Between 1965 to 1967 many droughts occurred which led to food shortage and famine like conditions in many parts of the country.
    6. The Second Plan established Tata institute of Fundamental Research where talented young students were trained for working in nuclear power projects. Government did not establish any such research institution for agriculture.

    Thus, these above controversies put government into cage and demanded an equal treatment. Hence, the Indian planners found balancing industry and agriculture really difficult.

    Picture Based Question

    Question 1.
    Study the cartoon given below carefully and answer the questions that follow:
    Political Science Class 12 Important Questions Chapter 12 Politics of Planned Development 1
    (i) Identify and name the person who is holding the balancing beam between the public sector and the private sector.
    (ii) Why has a big tilt towards the public sector been shown in the cartoon?
    (iii) How did the over-emphasis on public sector adversely affect the Indian economy? (All India 2017)
    Answer:
    (i) Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru, the then Prime Minister of India.
    (ii) A big tilt towards the public sector been shown in the cartoon because the government was in favour of mixed economy which added elements from both public and state models of economy. But the government provided much power to public sector. This

    sector has powerful vested interests that created enough hurdles for private capital, especially by way of installing systems of licenses, permits for investment and also restricted import of goods.

    (iii) The public sector exercised much power than private sector like controlled key heavy industries, provided industrial infrastructure, regulated trade and made crucial interventions in agriculture.

    When much hurdles created by public sector for private capital and also restrict import of goods by state’s policy, there was not enough space and stimulus left for private sector to grow.

    The state controlled more things than were necessary and this over-emphasis on public sector ultimately led inefficiency and corruption in the Indian economy.

    We hope the Political Science Class 12 Important Questions Chapter 12 Politics of Planned Development help you. If you have any query regarding Political Science Class 12 Important Questions Chapter 12 Politics of Planned Development, drop a comment below and we will get back to you at the earliest.

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