Geography Class 12 Important Questions Chapter 21 International Trade
1 Mark Questions
Which major seaport on the eastern coast of India has a landlocked harbour? (Delhi 2013)
Vishakhapatnam is a major seaport on the eastern coast of India which has a landlocked harbour.
Name the major seaport which has been developed to relieve the pressure at Chennai seaport. (Delhi 2016)
Ennore is the major seaport which has been developed to relieve the pressure at Chennai seaport.
Name the two Countries which are the largest trading partners of India as per the economic survey report of 2011-12. (All India 2016)
UAE and China are the largest trading partners of India as per the economic survey report of 2011-12.
Name the country which is the largest trading partner of India. (Delhi 2014)
China constitutes 70,717.18 total trade with India during 2013-14. Therefore, China is the largest trading partner of India.
Name the seaport which was constructed to reduce the congestion of Kolkata port. (Delhi 2014)
Which port has been constructed to reduce congestion of Kolkata port? (Delhi 2010)
Haldia port was constructed to reduce the congestion at Kolkata port.
Name the major seaport which was developed just after independence on the western coast of India. (Delhi 2000)
Name the first major seaport of India developed after independence. (Delhi 2011)
Kandla port was developed just after independence on the western coast of India.
Name the port developed as a satellite port to relieve the pressure at Mumbai port. (Delhi 2014)
Jawaharlal Nehru port was developed as a satellite port to relieve the pressure at Mumbai port.
Give the meaning of the term ‘hinterland’. (Delhi 2013)
Hinterland is the area which he behind the seaport and serves the seaport through a free form.
Name the major seaport located on Hugli river. (All India 2013)
Kolkata port is located on the Hugli river.
Which port has been developed to relieve the pressure of Chennai port? (All India 2011)
Tuticorin and Ennore ports have been developed to relieve the pressure of Chennai port.
Which is the principle import commodity of India? (Delhi 2010)
Crude petroleum and petroleum products are principle import commodities of India.
Which country is the largest trading partner of India? (All India 2010)
UAE is the largest trading partner of India.
Which export commodity of India has the highest value? (All India 2010)
Manufactured goods and engineering goods have the highest value in India’s export.
Which one of the Indian seaport provides port facilities to its landlocked neighbouring countries? Name any one such country. Delhi 2009
Kolkata port provides port facilities to its landlocked neighbouring countries i.e. Nepal and Bhutan.
Name the oldest artificial seaport of India. (All India 2009)
The oldest artificial seaport of India in Chennai port.
Name the biggest seaport of India. Delhi, (All India 2008)
The biggest seaport of India is Mumbai port.
3 Marks Questions
“Most of India’s foreign trade is carried through sea routes”. Explain the statement giving three reasons. (HOTS; All India 2010)
Most of India’s foreign trade is carried through sea routes because:
India has a long coastline of 7511 km. It provides India to connect with other countries easily by sea route.
Open to Sea from Three Sides
India’s peninsular plate is opened to sea from three sides. This strategic situation in Indian ocean provides a great advantage for India’s International Trade.
Cheapest Means of Transport
Water transport is a cheap means of transport as it provides a smooth surface and zeroes turbulence.
5 Marks Questions
“Despite the set back caused by the partition, Indian ports continued to grow after the independence”. Support the statement with examples, (HOTS; Delhi 2012)
India has a long history of international trade via seaports. These ports emerged as gateways of international trade after the coming of European traders and colonisation of India by British. These ports linked the local market to regional markets, regional to national and national international markets. This process was ‘ continued until independence. But India faced a huge loss when Karachi and Chittagong port were lost with the partition of the country. Karachi port went to Pakistan and Chittagong port went to ‘ East-Pakistan (now Bangladesh).
To recover from this loss, many new ports were developed. For instance, Kandla in the West and Diamond Harbour in the East near Kolkata on river Hugli. India recovered successfully from this loss and continued the growth of Indian ports.
Today large volumes of domestic and international trades are handled by these Indian ports. Modem infrastructure facilities are available in most of the Indian ports. Many private entrepreneurs have been invited for the modernisation of ports in the country. The cargo handling capacity of Indian ports has increased from 20 million tonnes in 1951 to more than 586 million tonnes in 2008-09.
Currently, there are 12 major ports and 185 minor or intermediate ports. A larger part of total traffic is carried through major ports.
Describe in brief the changing nature of export items in the international trade of India. (All Indio 2009)
Explain with examples, the changing pattern of the composition of India’s exports. (All indin 2008)
The changing pattern of the composition of India’s exports can be understood through the following points:
- There is a decrease in the share of agriculture and allied products.
- The share of petroleum products has increased mainly because of the rise in petroleum prices and increase in the petroleum refining capacity of India.
- A huge decline is registered in the exports of traditional items like coffee, spices, tea, pulses, etc due to the tough international competition.
- The increase has been registered in floricultural products, fresh fruits, marine products and sugar etc.
- Gems and jewellery are other commodities that have a larger share in India’s international trade.
Describe any five features of changing patterns of the composition of India’s import. (Delhi 2008)
The changing pattern of the composition of India’s import is discussed below:
- During the 1950s and 1960s, India faced serious food shortage, thus the country had to import food grains, capital goods, machinery and equipment at large scale.
- After 1970, when the success of the Green Revolution takes place, it results in discontinuation of the foodgrain import.
- The energy crises of 1973 raised the import prices of petroleum and fertilizers along with machine and equipment, special steel, edible oil and chemicals.
- Import of capital goods like non-electrical machinery, transport equipment, manufactures of metals and machine tools registered a steady increase. This increase could be because of the increasing demand in the export-oriented industrial and domestic sectors.
- Pearls and semi-precious stones, gold and silver, metallic ferrous ores and metal scrap non-ferrous metals, electronic goods, etc are other important items of India’s import.
Locate and label the following on the given political outline map of India with appropriate symbols.
(i) A major seaport which has been developed after independence to cater to the needs of Western and North-Western parts of the country. (Delhi 2013)
(i) Kandla seaport
In the given political outline map of India, locate and label the following with appropriate symbols.
(i) The major seaport located in Goa. (Delhi 2011)
(ii) The southernmost major seaport of India. (All Indio 2011)
In the given political map of India, locate and label the following with appropriate symbols
(i) The major seaport located in Odisha. (Delhi 2010)
(ii) The major seaport located in Kerala, (AH India 2010, 09)
(i) Paradwip seaport
(ii) Kochchi seaport
Value Based Questions
“The balance of payment was adverse as imports were more than exports in spite of all the efforts of imports substitution”. Which value lead to the adverse balance of payment?
Values which lead to the adverse balance of payment are:
- Economic competition
- Economic progress
“The nature of India’s foreign trade has changed over the years. Although the total value of export and import has been increased, the value of import is still higher than export”. Which value leads to an increase in import?
Values which lead to an increase in the import are:
- Market competition
- Profit marking
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