Study MaterialsCBSE NotesCBSE Extra Questions – Class 10 SST Geography Resources and Development

CBSE Extra Questions – Class 10 SST Geography Resources and Development

CBSE Extra Questions – Geography

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    Resources and Development

     

    Question-1
    Write a short note on classification of resources.
    Solution:
    The resources can be classed in the following ways:

    1. by their origin – biotic and abiotic
    2. by their exhaustibility – renewable and non-renewable
    3. On the basis of ownership – personal, communal, national, and worldwide
    4. On the basis of development status – potential developed stock and reserves.

     

    Question-2
    Give the difference between renewable resources and non-renewable resources with examples.
    Solution:
    Renewable or replenishable resources are those that can be replenished or reproduced by physical, chemical, or mechanical processes. Non-renewable resources, on the other hand, are resources that require millions of years to create.

     

    Question-3
    Give the two factors that determine soil fertility.
    Solution:
    1)The fertility of the soil is determined by its composition. Sandy soil is unsuitable for agriculture because it does not retain water, which is essential for plant survival. A blend of sand and clay is ideal in soils.
    2) Soil fertility is determined by humus content. The humus content of organic farmyard manures is improved.

     

    Question-4
    What is the classification of alluvial soil on the basis of their age? Mention their characteristics.
    Solution:
    Apart from the size of their grains or components, soils are also classified on the basis of their age. According to their age, alluvial soils can be classified as old alluvial ( Bangar ) and new alluvial ( Khadar ). The bangar soil has higher concentration of Kanker nodules than the Khadar. It has more fine particles and is more fertile than the bangar .


    Question-5
    Give a short note on reserves.
    Solution:
    Reserves are a subset of the stock that can be put to use with the help of existing technical “know-how,” but has yet to be done so. These can be put to good use in the future. River water can be used to generate hydroelectric power, but it is only employed to a limited extent at the moment. As a result, the water in dams, forests, and other bodies of water is a reserve that can be used in the future.


    Question-6
    Major problem faced due to the indiscriminate use of resources by Man- Discuss.
    Solution:
    Humans used resources indiscriminately, which resulted in the following issues.
    1) Resource depletion to satisfy the greed of a few individuals.
    2) The concentration of wealth in a few hands, dividing society into two segments: haves and have-nots, or rich and poor.
    Global ecological disasters have resulted from indiscriminate resource use.


    Question-7
    Write a paragraph on resource planning.
    Solution:
    Resource planning is a complicated process that entails:
    (i)Resource planning is a complicated process that entails: Surveying, mapping, and qualitative and quantitative resource evaluation and measurement are all part of this process.
    (ii) Developing a planning framework that is equipped with the necessary technology, expertise, and institutional infrastructure to carry out resource development plans.
    (iii) Aligning resource development plans with long-term national development strategies.

     

    Question-8
    What was the views of Gandhiji on resource conservation?
    Solution:
    Gandhiji expressed his concern about resource conservation by saying, “There is enough for everyone’s need, but not for anyone’s greed.” He blamed greedy and selfish humans, as well as the exploitative nature of contemporary technology, for world resource depletion. He was opposed to mass production and desired to replace it with mass production.


    Question-9
    Name the five types of land resource.
    Solution:
    Land resources are made up of:
    1. Forests
    2. Land not available for cultivation:
    (a) Barren and waste land
    (b) Land put to non-agricultural uses, e.g. buildings, roads, factories, etc.
    3. Other uncultivated land (excluding fallow land):
    (a) Permanent pastures and grazing land,
    (b) Land under miscellaneous tree crops groves (not included in net sown area),
    (c) Cultivable wasteland (left uncultivated for more than 5 agricultural years).
    4. Fallow lands
    (a) Current fallow (left without cultivation for one or less than one agricultural year),
    (b) Other than current fallow- (left uncultivated for the past 1 to 5 agricultural years).
    5. Net sown area-Area sown more than once in an agricultural year plus net sown area is known as gross cropped area .
    Question-10
    What are the factors that determine the use of land?
    Solution:
    Physical elements such as terrain, climate, and soil types, as well as human factors such as population density, technological capabilities, culture, and traditions, all influence how land is used.


    Question-11
    What has significantly contributed to land degradation?
    Solution:
    Deforestation, overgrazing, mining, and quarrying are all examples of human activities that have contributed considerably to land degradation. After excavation work is completed, mining sites are abandoned, leaving deep scars and evidence of overburdening. Deforestation caused by mining has resulted in severe land degradation in areas like as Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, and Orissa. Overgrazing is a major cause of land degradation in areas like Gujarat, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, and Maharashtra. Over irrigation causes land degradation in Punjab, Haryana, and western Uttar Pradesh due to water logging, which causes a rise in salinity and alkalinity in the soil. Mineral processing, such as limestone grinding for the cement industry and calcite and soapstone grinding for the ceramic industry, produces a large amount of dust in the environment. It slows the infiltration of water into the soil after it has settled on the ground. In many sections of the country, industrial effluents as waste have become a major source of land and water pollution in recent years.

     

    Question-12
    How can the problem of deforestation be solved?
    Solution:
    Land degradation can be addressed in a variety of ways.
    1. Afforestation and correct grazing management can help to a degree.
    2. Planting of plant shelterbelts, controlling overgrazing, and stabilizing sand dunes by planting prickly shrubs
    3. In industrial and suburban regions, proper wasteland management, mining activity regulation, and proper discharge and disposal of treated industrial effluents and wastes.


    Question-13
    Soil is the most important renewable natural resource. Explain.
    Solution:
    It serves as a growing medium for plants and as a habitat for a variety of living organisms on the planet. Soil is a living organism. Soil formation up to a depth of a few centimetres takes millions of years. Soil formation is influenced by elements such as relief, parent rock or bed rock, climate, flora, and other kinds of life, as well as time.
    Various natural forces, including as temperature changes, running water, wind, and glaciers, decomposer activity, and so on, all contribute to the development of soil. Changes in the soil’s chemical and organic composition are equally essential. Organic (humus) and inorganic components coexist in soil.


    Question-14
    Give a brief note on the productivity of alluvial soil.
    Solution:
    Overall, alluvial soils are extremely fertile. These soils often have suitable levels of potash, phosphoric acid, and lime, making them ideal for sugarcane, paddy, wheat, and other cereal and pulse crops. Alluvial soils are widely cultivated and densely populated due to their high fertility. Soils in drier places are more alkaline and, with correct treatment and irrigation, can be productive.


    Question-15
    Is black soil easy to work, in hot climate? Explain.
    Solution:
    The clayey particles in the black soils is exceedingly fine. They’re noted for their ability to retain moisture. They’re also high in soil nutrients like calcium carbonate, magnesium, potassium, and lime. The phosphoric concentration of these soils is typically low. During hot weather, they create deep fissures, which aid in appropriate soil aeration. When wet, these soils become sticky and difficult to work on unless they are tilled just after the first shower or during the pre-monsoon period.


    Question-16
    Give a brief note on arid soil.
    Solution:
    The colour of arid soils ranges from red to brown. They have a sand feel and are saline in nature. The salt content of some regions is extremely high, and common salt is created by evaporating the water. Evaporation occurs faster due to the dry climate and high temperatures, and the soil lacks humus and moisture. Kankar takes up residence in the lower strata of the soil as the calcium level decreases. Water infiltration is restricted by the Kankar layer formations in the lowest horizons. As in the case of western Rajasthan, these soils become cultivable after sufficient irrigation.


    Question-17
    Mention any two methods for reducing fallow land.
    Solution:
    The two methods for reducing fallow Land are :
    1. Use fertilizers
    2. Crop rotation or multiple cropping.


    Question-18
    What are the two disturbing features of land – use pattern?
    Solution:
    The two distributing features of the land-use pattern are:
    1. Forests
    2.Barren wastelands.


    Question-19
    Give two characteristics of alluvial soil.
    Solution:
    Alluvial soil has two key characteristics:
    1. In India, alluvial soil is the most common type of soil.
    2. It is made up of sediments that are carried down by rivers year after year and are extremely fruitful.
    They are ideally suited for farming.


    Question-20
    What was the root cause for resources depletion at the global level, according to Gandhiji?
    Solution:
    (i) Greedy and selfish nature of the individual.
    (ii) Exploitation nature of modern technology.


    Question-21
    What are the problems faced due to mismanagement of resources?
    Solution:
    (i) Overutilization of resources leads to their depletion.
    (ii) Overutilization of the resources leads to environmental degradation.


    Question-22
    What is conservation of resources?
    Solution:
    It is described as the human management of resources. Its goal is to meet the demands of current generations as well as future generations’ aspirations.


    Question-23
    What is resource planning?
    Solution:
    Dalhousie, for example, has extensive forest resources but lacks infrastructure amenities, therefore this is a generally accepted technique for resource management. As a result, resource development must be planned.


    Question-24
    Give the importance of human beings as an essential component of resource?
    Solution:
    Man converts materials found in our environment into resources, which he then employs. As a result, Man is seen as a vital component of the Resource. Wood, for example, is a substance that, when used, becomes a piece of furniture, which is a resource.


    Question-25
    Define Resource.
    Solution:
    A resource is anything in our environment that can be exploited to meet our requirements, as long as it is technologically accessible, fiscally flexible, and culturally acceptable.


    Question-26
    Where is black soil found?
    (A) Jammu and Kashmir
    (B) Rajasthan
    (C) Gujarat
    (D) Jharkhand
    Solution:
    (C) Gujarat.


    Question-27
    Where is gully erosion is commonly found?
    (A) Kutch basin
    (B) Saurasthra basin
    (C) Chambal basin
    (D) Southern Plateau
    Solution:
    (C) Chambal basin.


    Question-28
    In which of the following states, is the net sown area under irrigation lowest?
    (a) Haryana, Punjab
    (b) Bengal, Bihar, Assam
    (C) Himachal, Assam, Maharashtra, Karnataka
    (D) Jammu and Kashmir, Rajasthan, Gujarat
    Solution:
    (C) Himachal, Assam, Maharashtra, Karnataka.


    Question-29
    Where is laterite soil found?
    (A) Jammu and Kashmir
    (B) Rajasthan
    (C) Kerala
    (D) Jharkhand
    Solution:
    (B) Rajasthan.


    Question-30
    Where is land degraded caused due to excessive cultivation?
    (A) Madhya Pradesh
    (B) Rajasthan
    (C) Punjab
    (D) Gujarat
    Solution:
    (C) Punjab.


    Question-31
    Which is not a factor, in process of transformation of resources in the given environment?
    (A) Technology
    (B) Institutions
    (C) Wildlife
    (D) Human Society
    Solution:
    (C) Wildlife.


    Question-32
    (A) Assam, Mizoram, Arunachal Pradesh, and Himachal Pradesh
    (B) Jharkhand, Chattisgarh, Bihar
    (C) Goa, Karnataka, Kerala
    (D) Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, and Orissa
    Solution:
    (A) Assam, Mizoram, Arunachal Pradesh, and Himachal Pradesh.


    Question-33
    Choose the correct percentage of land division in India.
    (A) Plains – 28%, Mountains – 16%, Plateaus – 60%
    (B) Plains – 40%, Mountains – 33%, Plateaus – 27%
    (C) Plains – 43%, Mountains – 30%, Plateaus – 27%
    (D) Plains – 45%, Mountains – 28%, Plateaus – 27%
    Solution:
    (C) Plains – 43%, Mountains – 30%, Plateaus – 27%.


    Question-34
    Which one is a renewable resource?
    (A) Iron-ore
    (B) Petroleum products
    (C) Coal
    (D) Solar energy
    Solution:
    (D) Solar energy.


    Question-35
    Which place is related to the Earth Summit of 1992?
    (A) Dhaka in Bangladesh
    (B) New Delhi in India
    (C) Tehran in Iran
    (D) Rio de Janeiro in Brazil
    Solution:
    (D) Rio de Janeiro in Brazil.


    Question-36
    Which one is an example of private ownership of a resource?
    (A) Community Hall
    (B) Police Station
    (C) Farm Land
    (D) Post Office
    Solution:
    (C) Farm land.


    Question-37
    What is India’s national territorial water limit extension?
    (A) 10 nautical mile
    (B) 12 nautical mile
    (C) 11 nautical mile
    (D) 15nautical mile
    Solution:
    (B) 12 nautical mile.


    Question-38
    Which is an example of a potential resource?
    (A) Thermal energy in Jharkhand
    (B) Hydel power in the Himalayan region
    (C) Electricity in Northern Grid of India
    (D) Nuclear energy in Maharashtra region
    Solution:
    (B) Hydel power in the Himalayan region.


    Question-39
    (C) Maharashtra, Karnataka, Kerala
    (D) Bihar, Bengal, Assam
    Solution:
    (B) Haryana, Punjab, Bihar.


    Question-40
    In which place is land degradation excess due to land mining?
    (A) Punjab
    (B) Haryana
    (C) Uttar Pradesh
    (D) Jharkhand
    Solution:
    (D) Jharkhand.


    Question-41
    Which factor cannot be classified, as one of the factors of soil formation?
    (A) Parent rock
    (B) Running water
    (C) Humus
    (D) Industrialisation
    Solution:
    (D) Industrialisation.


    Question-42
    Which type of resource is iron-ore?
    (A) Renewable
    (B) Flow
    (C) Biotic
    (D) Non-renewable
    Solution:
    (D) Non-renewable.


    Question-43
    What caused land degradation in Punjab?
    (A) Intensive cultivation
    (B) Over irrigation
    (C) Deforestation
    (D) Overgrazing
    Solution:
    (A) Intensive cultivation.


    Question-44
    Where is terrace cultivation practiced?
    (A) Punjab
    (B) Haryana
    (C) Plains of Uttar Pradesh
    (D) Uttaranchal
    Solution:
    (D) Uttaranchal.


    Question-45
    Where is Sukhomaijri located?
    (A) Uttaranchal
    (B) Uttar Pradesh
    (C) Haryana
    (D) Andhra Pradesh
    Solution:
    (C) Haryana.


    Question-46
    Where has shelter belts stabilized sand dunes?
    (A) Gujarat
    (B) Haryana
    (C) Rajasthan
    (D) Punjab
    Solution:
    (C) Rajasthan.


    Question-47
    India has a wide variety of relief features, which are the most important resources. Justify the statement.
    Solution:
    Mountains, plains, and plateaus are among the relief features found in India.
    (i) The plain land area, which provides facilities for the agriculture industry, accounts for around 43% of the total land area.
    (ii) Mountains cover 30% of the land area, providing opportunities for tourism and environmental concerns.
    It also ensures that some rivers continue to flow.
    (iii) The plateau region contains about 27% of the world’s mineral reserves.


    Question-48
    Give the differences between resource-rich countries and resource-poor countries.
    Solution:
    Resource-Rich Countries
    1. Resource-rich countries are ones that have a lot of natural resources like forests and water.
    2. For example, India has a vast resource base, but most of it is untapped potential owing to a lack of technology.
    Resources Poor Countries
    1. Countries with a limited resource base are referred to as resource-poor.
    2. Take Japan, which has no natural resources but is wealthy in technological talent.


    Question-49
    What are the various stages of resources planning?
    Solution:
    (i) Identifying and taking inventory of resources across the country, which includes surveying, mapping, and resource measuring.
    (ii) Developing a planning structure with the necessary technological capabilities and institutions to carry out resource development strategies.
    (iii) Aligning resource development plans with the country’s overall development goals.


    Question-50
    What are the uses of resource planning?
    Solution:
    (i) It reduces the exploitation of natural resources.
    (ii) It prevents contamination in the environment.
    (iii) Because resources are limited, it is necessary to conserve them for future use.
    (iv) It is necessary for rapid economic growth.


    Question-51
    What is sustainable economic development?
    Solution:
    Economic development that is sustainable means that it takes place without harming the environment, and that it does not sacrifice the requirements of future generations.


    Question-52
    List the importance of natural resources.
    Solution:
    (i) They are our primary source of agricultural production.
    (ii) They supply the industry with raw materials.
    (iii) They are directly or indirectly responsible for all of our business activities.
    (iv) They help to keep the ecological balance in check.


    Question-53
    Give the resources on the basis of exhaustibility.
    Solution:
    The following is a list of resource classifications based on their exhaustibility:
    (i) Renewable Resources – Resources that can be replenished or generated through physical, chemical, or mechanical means.
    (ii) Non-Renewable Resources — They are formed over millions of years of geological time and are depleted as a result of their use. Minerals, for example.


    Question-54
    Classify resources on the basis of origin.
    Solution:
    Resources are classed as follows based on their origin:
    (i) Biotic – They come from the Biosphere and have life in the form of plants and fauna.
    (ii) Abiotic — All objects made out of non-living matter, such as rocks, metals, and so on.


    Question-55
    What is the inter-relationship between nature, technology institutions?
    Solution:
    Humans interact with nature to meet their needs by utilizing the resources available. He also creates institutions to accelerate their economic development by converting natural resources into resources through technology.


    Question-56
    What are the methods adopted to solve the problems of land degradation?
    Solution:
    1. Afforestation.
    2. Proper management of grazing land.
    3. Planting of shelterbelts in desert areas.
    4. Control of overgrazing.
    5. Stabilization of sand dunes by growing theory bushes.
    6. Proper management of wastelands.
    7. Control on mining activities.
    8. Proper discharge disposal of effluents waster after treatment can reduce land degradation.


    Question-57
    Give a few activities which result in the land – degradation.
    Solution:
    1. Deforestation in states such as Madhya Pradesh and Orissa.
    2. Overgrazing has resulted in land deterioration in Punjab and Haryana.
    3. Land degradation has been exacerbated by mining quarrying, as mine sites abound after excavation work is completed, leaving deep scars.
    4. Over irrigation in areas like Punjab and Haryana causes land degradation owing to waterlogging, which causes soil salinity and alkalinity to rise.
    5. Mineral processing, such as the grinding of limestone for the cement industry, generates a large amount of dust in the atmosphere, which settles on land and prevents water from percolating into the soil.
    6. Industrial effluents are a major source of water pollution on land.

     

    Question-58
    List the resources on the basis of the status of development.
    Solution:
    The following is a list of resource classifications based on development status:
    (i) Potential Resources – Resources that have been discovered in the area but have yet to be used. For example, the western section of India offers vast solar and wind energy potential that has yet to be fully realized.
    (ii) Developed Resources – Resources that have been surveyed and whose amount has been decided for use; their development is dependent on their technological viability.
    (iii) Stock Resources – Materials in the environment that have the potential to meet human requirements but are unable to do so owing to a lack of technology. Water, for example, is a hydrogen-oxygen molecule that is a rich source of energy that we cannot utilize owing to a lack of technology.
    (iv) Reserves – Reserves are a subset of stock that can be put to use using existing technological skills, but their usage has yet to begin.


    Question-59
    Classify resources on the basis of ownership.
    Solution:
    Classification is as follows :
    (i) Individual-Resource – The resources that are owned privately by individuals such as a house is owned by an individual.
    (ii) Community-owned Resources — These are resources that are available to all members of society, such as a public park.
    (iii) National Resource – All of a country’s natural resources, such as forests and wildlife.
    (iv) International Resource – Some resources are regulated by international authorities. For example, maritime resources beyond 200 kilometers of exclusive economic zone belong to the open ocean, and no single country can use them without international intervention.


    Question-60
    How are gullies formed?
    Solution:
    Gullies are ravines formed by rain water in areas devoid of green cover.


    Question-61
    What does resource planning stand for?
    Solution:
    Resource planning is the technique used for ensuring best use of the existing resources.


    Question-62
    Identify three factors responsible for soil formation.
    Solution:
    Relief, climate and nature of parent rock are responsible for soil formation.


    Question-63
    What is meant by waste land?
    Solution:
    Waste land includes rocky, arid and desert areas.


    Question-64
    Write about resource planning. What were Gandhiji’s views on resource conservation?
    Solution:
    Resource planning is a complex process, which involves:
    (i) Resource identification and inventory across the country’s regions. Surveying, mapping, and qualitative and quantitative resource evaluation and measurement are all part of this process.
    (ii) Developing a planning framework that is equipped with the necessary technology, expertise, and institutional infrastructure to carry out resource development plans.
    (iii) Aligning resource development plans with long-term national development strategies.
    Gandhiji expressed his concern about resource conservation by saying, “There is enough for everyone’s need, but not for anyone’s greed.” He blamed greedy and selfish humans, as well as the exploitative nature of contemporary technology, for world resource depletion. He was opposed to mass production and desired to replace it with mass production.


    Question-65
    What has significantly contributed to land degradation?
    Solution:
    Deforestation, overgrazing, mining, and quarrying are all examples of human activities that have contributed considerably to land degradation. After excavation work is completed, mining sites are abandoned, leaving deep scars and evidence of overburdening. Deforestation caused by mining has resulted in severe land degradation in areas like as Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, and Orissa. Overgrazing is a major cause of land degradation in areas like Gujarat, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, and Maharashtra. Over irrigation causes land degradation in Punjab, Haryana, and western Uttar Pradesh due to waterlogging, which causes a rise in salinity and alkalinity in the soil. Mineral processing, such as limestone grinding for the cement industry and calcite and soapstone grinding for the ceramic industry, produces a large amount of dust in the environment. It retards the process of infiltration of water into the soil after it settles down on the land. In recent years, industrial effluents as waste have become a major source of land and water pollution in many parts of the country.


    Question-66
    Soil is the most important renewable natural resource. Explain.
    Solution:
    It serves as a growing medium for plants and as a habitat for a variety of living organisms on the planet. Soil is a living organism. Soil formation up to a depth of a few centimeters takes millions of years. Soil formation is influenced by elements such as relief, parent rock or bedrock, climate, flora, and other kinds of life, as well as time.
    Various natural forces, including temperature changes, running water, wind, and glaciers, decomposer activity, and so on, all contribute to the development of soil. Changes in the soil’s chemical and organic composition are equally essential. Organic (humus) and inorganic components coexist in soil.


    Question-67
    Is black soil easy to work, in a hot climate? Explain.
    Solution:
    The black soils are made up of extremely fine i.e. clayey material. They are well known for their capacity to hold moisture. In addition, they are rich in soil nutrients, such as calcium carbonate, magnesium, potash and lime. These soils are generally poor in phosphoric contents. They develop deep cracks during hot weather, which helps in the proper aeration of the soil. These soils are sticky when wet and difficult to work on unless tilled immediately after the first shower or during the pre-monsoon period.

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