Poverty as a Challenge Class 9 Extra Questions Social Science Economics Chapter 3
Extra Questions for Class 9 Social Science Economics Chapter 3 Poverty as a Challenge
Poverty as a Challenge Class 9 Extra Questions Very Short Answer Type Questions
When the health of a person suffers due to deficiency of nutrients in food as per his daily requirement, he/she is said to be the victim of _______ .
What helped West Bengal in reducing poverty?
Land reform measures.
How many people in India live below the poverty line?
In rural areas in India, the accepted average calories requirement per person per day is _______ .
What is the most difficult challenge faced by independent India?
PMRY was started in 1993, stands for _______ .
Prime Minister Rojgar Yozana
SGSY was launched in 1999 for assisted poor families above poverty line by organising them into self-help groups.
Swarnajayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana
PMGY was launched in 2000 to provide rural shelter, rural drinking water, primary health, primary education and rural electrification. It stands for _______ .
Pradhan Mantri Gramodaya Yozana
What is poverty?
Poverty is a situation in which a person is unable to satisfy minimum basic necessities of life, i.e., food, clothing, education, shelter, health, etc.
What are the two methods of estimating the poverty line.
There are two methods of measuring poverty line—
- Level consumption expenditure method and
- Income method.
What are the two main causes of poverty in India?
- Low level of economic development under the British colonial administration.
- A high growth rate of population.
What is the full form of NSSO?
National Sample Survey Organisation.
Which are the poorest states in India?
Odisha and Bihar
How is poverty defined by the World Bank?
Poverty is defined by the World Bank as living on less than $ 1.90 per day.
What is the major reason behind huge income inequalities?
It is the unequal distribution of land and other resources.
Which organisation carries out survey for determining the poverty line?
National Sample Survey Organisation
How do you define vulnerability to poverty?
Vulnerability to poverty is a measure, which describes the greater probability of certain communities or individuals of becoming, or remaining, poor in the coming years.
How does a country measure its poverty?
Each country uses an imaginary line that is considered appropriate for its existing level of development and its accepted minimum social norms.
How is the food requirement estimated in poverty line?
The present formula for food requirement while estimating the poverty line is based on the desired calorie requirement. Food items, such as cereals, pulses, vegetable, milk, oil, sugar, etc., together provide these needed calories.
What is the accepted average calorie requirement in India?
The accepted average calorie requirement in India is 2,400 calories per person per day in mral areas and 2,100 calories per person per day in urban areas.
Who advocated that India would be truly independent only when the poorest of its people become free of human suffering?
Which scheme was started in 1993 to create self-employment opportunities for educated unemployed youth in rural areas and small towns?
Prime Minister Rozgar Yozana (PMRY).
For how many days MGNREGA provides employment?
Which country of Southeast Asia made rapid economic growth resulting in a significant decline in poverty?
Which social groups are most vulnerable to poverty?
The social groups, which are most vulnerable to poverty are Scheduled caste and Scheduled Tribe households.
Which states of India have seen a significant decline in poverty?
Kerala, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Gujarat and West Bengal
On which two planks does the current anti-poverty strategy of the government is based upon?
- Promotion of economic growth.
- Targeted anti-poverty programmes.
What are the biggest challenges before India?
Providing healthcare, education and job security for all and achieving gender equality and dignity for the poor are the bigger challenges before India.
Poverty as a Challenge Class 9 Extra Questions Short Answer Type Questions
What are the indicators used by social scientists to understand poverty?
The indicators used by social scientists to understand poverty are :
- Levels of income and consumption
- Lack of general resistance due to malnutrition
- Lack of access to healthcare
- Lack of job opportunities
- Lack of access to safe drinking water, sanitation, etc.
What do you understand by vulnerability to poverty?
Vulnerability of poverty means some communities or social groups are more prone to poverty than other sections of the society. Members of a backward caste or individuals such as a widow or a physically handicapped person of becoming, or remaining, poor in the coming years. Vulnerability is determined by the options available to different communities for finding an alternative living in terms of assets, education, health and job opportunities. Further, it is analysed on the basis of the greater risks these groups face at the time of natural disasters (earthquakes, tsunami), terrorism, etc.
How were the British policies responsible for the increase in poverty in India?
There were a number of causes for the widespread in India. One of the historical reasons is the low level of economic development under the British colonial administration. The policies of colonial government ruined traditional handicrafts and discouraged development of industries like textiles. The low rate of growth persisted until the nineteen-eighties. This resulted in less job opportunities and low growth rate of incomes. This was accompanied by a high growth rate of population. The two combined to make the growth rate of per capita income very low. The failure at both the fronts : promotion of economic growth and population control perpetuated the cycle of poverty.
What does social exclusion mean?
- According to this concept, poverty must be seen in terms of the poor having to live only in poor surrounding with other people, excluded from enjoying social equality of better-off people in better surroundings.
- Social exclusion can be both a cause as well as a consequence of poverty in the usual sense.
- Broadly, it is a through in which individuals or groups are excluded from facilities, benefits and opportunities that others enjoy.
How is economic growth linked with poverty reduction in India?
Till the early eighties, there were little per capita income growth and not much reduction in poverty. Afterwards the growth rate jumped from the average of about 3-5 percent a year in the 1970s to 6 per cent during the 1980s and 1990s. The higher growth rates have helped significantly in the reduction of poverty. There is a strong link between economic growth and poverty reduction. Economic growth widens opportunities and provides the resources needed to invest in human development. This also encourages people to send their children, including the girl child, to schools in the hope of getting better economic returns from investing in education.
How are socio-cultural and economic factors responsible for poverty?
Many socio-cultural and economic factors are responsible for poverty. In order to fulfil social obligations and observe religious ceremonies, people in India, including the very poor, spend a lot of money. Small farmers need money to buy agricultural inputs like seeds, fertilizers, pesticides, etc. Since poor people hardly have any savings, they borrow. Unable to repay because of poverty, they become victims of indebtedness. So, the high level of indebtedness is both the cause and effect of poverty.
Explain the principle measures taken in Punjab, Kerala and Andhra Pradesh to reduce poverty.
The measure taken in Punjab, Kerala and Andhra Pradesh to reduce poverty are :
- The principal measures taken in Punjab to reduce poverty is increasing the agricultural growth rates.
- Kerala has focused more on human resource development to reduce poverty.
- Andhra Pradesh focused on public distribution of food grains to reduce poverty.
Illustrate the seriousness of poverty in India?
In our daily life, we come across many people who we think are poor. They could be landless labourers in villages or people living in overcrowded jhuggis in cities.
They could be daily wage workers at construction sites or child workers in dhabas. They could also be beggars with children in tatters. We see poverty all around us. In fact, every fourth person in India is poor.
This means, roughly 270 million (or 27 crore) people in India live in poverty 2011-12. This also means that India has the largest single concentration of the poor in the world. This illustrates the seriousness of the challenge.
Is it correct that poverty line may vary with time and place?
- A person is considered poor if his or her income or consumption level falls below a given “minimum level” necessary to fulfill the basic needs. What is necessary to satisfy basic needs is different at different times and in different countries.
- Therefore, poverty line may vary with time and place. Each country uses an imaginary line that is considered appropriate for its existing level of development and its accepted minimum social norms.
Explain how the low level of education of the poor people can be held responsible for poverty in India.
- Low level of education of the poor is a major cause behind their poverty. Poor people do not have access to education.
- Because of illiteracy, the Indian farmers have failed to learn new methods of cultivation. Even the village moneylenders succeed in cheating them quite easily.
- Moreover, poor parents are not able to send their children to schools. So, the poor people are employed as unskilled workers and are paid low wages due to low level of education.
Describe the aims of Swarnajanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana and the Pradhan Mantri Gramodaya Yozana.
Swarnayanti Gram Swarozgar : Swarnajayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana (SGSY) was launched in 1999. The programme aims at bringing the assisted poor families above the poverty line by organising them into self-help groups through a mix of bank credit and government subsidy.
Pradhan Mantri Gramodaya Yozana : The Pradhan Mantri Gramodaya Yozana (PMGY) was launched in 2000. Under this scheme, additional central assistance is given to states for basic services such as primary health, primary education, rural shelter, rural drinking water and rural electrification.
What are the major reasons for less effectiveness of anti-poverty measures?
The major reasons for less effectiveness of anti-poverty measures are :
- One of the major reasons for less effectiveness is the lack of proper implementation and right targeting.
- Moreover, there has been a lot of overlapping of schemes.
- Despite good intentions, the benefits of these schemes are not fully reached to the deserving poor.
- Therefore, the major emphasis in recent years is on proper monitoring of all the poverty alleviation programmes.
Poverty as a Challenge Class 9 Extra Questions Long Answer Type Questions
How does rapid growth rate of population increase poverty in a country?
- Rapid growth of population in comparison to the rate of growth of resources hampers the process of economic development.
- Increase in population reduces the per capita income and lowers the standard of living in an economy.
- In India, rapid growth of population has put in more stress on its economic and social infrastructure and thereby, aggravating the problem of poverty and unemployment.
- Due to enormous population, a large portion of national income is used on consumption and less is left for saving which, in turn, reduces the capital formation.
- As a result of low capital formation, enough employment opportunities cannot be created which further aggravate the problem of poverty. Poor people in India are ignorant, illiterate and has very less means of entertainment. So, they end up adding more to the population.
What is poverty? What are the dimensions of poverty?
Poverty is a situation in which a person is unable to get the minimum necessities of life.
Due to poverty poor people are in a situation in which they are ill-treated at almost every place.
The dimensions of poverty are :
- Poverty means hunger and lack of shelter.
- It is a situation in which parents are not able to send their children to school or a situation where sick people cannot afford treatment.
- Poverty also means lack of clean water and sanitation facilities.
- It also means lack of a regular job at a minimum decent level. :
- Poor people are in a situation in which they are ill-treated at almost every place, in farms, factories, government offices, hospitals, railway stations etc.
Discuss the various groups that are vulnerable to poverty.
The following groups are vulnerable to poverty :
- Social Groups: Social groups, which are most vulnerable to poverty are Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribe households. Although, the average for people below poverty line for all groups in India is 22, 43 out of 100 people belonging to Scheduled Tribes are not able to meet their basic needs.
- Economic Groups: Among the economic groups, the most vulnerable groups are the rural agricultural labour households and the urban casual labour households.
- Inequality of incomes within a family: There is also inequality of incomes within a family. In poor families, all suffer, but some suffer more than others. In some cases, women, elderly people and female infants are denied equal access to resources available to the family.
How can poverty be reduced in future in India?
Poverty can be reduced in the following ways :
- Increasing stress on universal free elementary education
- Increasing empowerment of the women and the economically weaker sections of society.
- Declining population growth.
- Avoiding caste and gender discrimination.
- Improving healthcare, education and job security.
- Removing inequality of wealth among people.