Study MaterialsCBSE NotesImportant Questions for Class 12 History Chapter 7 An Imperial Capital: Vijayanagara

Important Questions for Class 12 History Chapter 7 An Imperial Capital: Vijayanagara

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Important Questions for Class 12 History Chapter 7 An Imperial Capital: Vijayanagara

Important Questions for Class 12 History Chapter 7 – 2 Marks Questions

Question 1.
Examine how the Amara-Nayaka system was a political innovation of the Vijayanagara empire. (All India 2017)
Answer:
The Amara-Nayaka system was a major political innovation of the Vijayanagara empire. Many features of this system were derived from the iqta system of the Delhi sultanate. The Amara-Nayakas were military commanders ’ who were given territories to govern by the Rayas or the rulers of Vijayanagara.

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    Question 2.
    Examine the outcome of the battle of Rakshasi-Tangadi (Talikota). (All India 2017)
    Answer:
    In 1565, Rama Raya, the Chief Minister of Vijayanagara, led the army into the battle at Rakashasi Tangadi where his forces were routed by the combined armies of Bijapur, Ahmadnagar and Golconda. The armies of the sultans were responsible for the destruction of the city of Vijayanagara.

    It was only after the death of Krishnadeva Raya, the relation between Sultans and Rayas became bitter. The adventurous policy of Rama Raya who tried to play off one Sultan against another, made the Sultans angry and they combinedly defeated him. In this way, Vijayanagara empire was gradually destructed.

    Question 3.
    Examine the significance of enclosing agricultural land within the fortified area of the city of Vijayanagara.
    Answer:
    By enclosing the agricultural land within the fortified area of the city, the king of Vijayanagara empire gave protection to their subject. Because at the times of war enemies would not easily penetrate into the fortified walls and also not to cause any harm to the cultivable land. Thus, the situation of starvation or famine in the city can be minimized at the times of difficulty.

    Question 4.
    Which dynasty did Krishnadeva Raya belong to? Mention any one of his expansion and consolidation policies. (HOTS; Delhi 2013)
    Answer:
    Krishnadeva Raya (1509-29) was the most famous ruler belonged to the Tuluva dynasty. The expansion and consolidation was a salient feature of his rule as:

    • He acquired the land between Tungabhadra and Krishna rivers (the RaichurDoab) in 1512.
    • During his rule, the rulers of Odisha were subdued in 1514 and harsh defeats were inflicted on the Sultan of Bijapur (1520).

    Question 5.
    Mention any two features of the temple complexes in Vijayanagara. (All India 2010)
    Answer:
    Following are the two features of Vijayanagara temple complexes:

    • The immense structures of Raya gopurams or royal gateways often dwarfed the towers on the central shrines and it signalled the presence of the temple from a great distance.
    • Other distinctive features include mandapas or pavilions and long pillared corridors within the temple complex.

    Question 4.
    State two characteristics of Krishnadeva Raya’s rule. (Delhi 2009)
    Answer:
    Two characteristics of Krishnadeva Raya’s rule are as follows:

    1. Strengthening the central authority and putting a strict control over the Nayakas. Military chiefs were known as Nayakas who controlled forts and had armed supporters.
    2. For the fortification of Vijayanagara city, Krishnadeva Raya built some fine temples and impressive gopurams in the city.

    Question 5.
    Mention any two features about the location of the city of Vijayanagara. (All India 2009)
    Answer:
    Two features about the location of the city of Vijayanagara are as follows:

    1. Vijayanagara was located on the natural basin formed by the river Tungabhadra which flows in a North-Easterly direction.
    2. It is surrounded by the stunning granite hills. These hills seem to form a girdle around the city.

    Important Questions for Class 12 History Chapter 7 – 4 Marks Questions

    Question 6.
    Highlight the contribution of Krishnadeva Raya in the expansion of Vijayanagara empire. (All India 2016)
    Answer:
    The most famous ruler of Vijayanagara, Krishnadeva Raya (1509-29) belonged to the Tuluva dynasty. His rule was characterised by expansion and consolidation in the following ways:

    • The land between the Tungabhadra and Krishna rivers (the Raichur Doab) was acquired by Krishnadeva Raya in 1512.
    • In 1514, rulers of Odisha were subdued and Sultan of Bijapur was defeated in 1520. He made his kingdom so extensive that many smaller kingdoms allied with it and showed their respect to Raja Krishnadeva Raya.
    • His kingdom remained in a constant state of military preparedness. It flourished under the conditions of unparalleled peace and prosperity at the time of Krishnadeva Raya.

    Question 7.
    Highlight any four aspects observed by the Portuguese traveller Barbosa on the Urban core of the Vijayanagara empire. (Delhi 2016)
    Am.
    The 16th century Portuguese traveller Barbosa highlighted his personal observation on the urban core of the Vijayanagara empire. These were explained in the following ways:

    • Barbosa described the houses of ordinary people, though these have not survived.
    • The houses of common men were thatched, well built and arranged according to the occupation. These were arranged in long streets with many open places.
    • Field survey indicated that the entire area had numerous shrines and small temples, which was a proof of a variety of cults, supported by different communities.
    • Wells, rainwater tanks and temple tanks might have served as sources of water to the common men of the town.

    Question 8.
    Highlight the aspects observed by Domingo Paes on the Mahanavami dibba of the Vijayanagara empire. (Delhi 2016)
    Answer:
    Domingo Paes called the Mahanavami dibba of the Vijayanagara empire as The House of Victory’. These buildings had two platforms, one above the other. These were beautifully sculpted. On the upper platform, the king had a room made of cloth, where the idol had a shrine. It is the highest point in the city and is a massive platform. The other in the middle was placed a dais (a low platform for a throne) on which stood a throne of state.

    He suggested that for the people the showed the victory of good over evil. Both these ‘audience hall’ and the ‘Mahanavami dibba’ comprised of the valour, justice and the suzerainty of the king over all other.
    The calling of the house as the house of victory was due to the fact that it was situated at the site highest of all in the kingdoms. It was constructed so as to keep up the memory of the victory of the kingdom in war over other kingdoms and empires.

    Question 9.
    ‘The Mahanavami dibba in the Royal centre of Vijayanagara has been assigned name on the basis of its form of building as well as functions.’ Elaborate. (Delhi 2015)
    Am.
    The Mahanavami dibba in the Royal centre of Vijayanagara has been assigned its name on the basis of the following:

    1. Mahanavami dibba, located on one of the highest points in the city, is a massive platform rising from a base of • about 11,000 sq ft to a height of 40 ft.
    The base of the platform is covered with relief carvings.

    2. Rituals associated with the structure probably coincided with Mahanavami (the great 9th day of the Hindu festival) known as Dussehra in Northern India, Durga Puja in Bengal and Navaratri in Peninsular India. The Vijayanagara rulers showed their prestige, power and suzerainty on this occasion.

    3. The ceremonies performed here included worship of the image, worship of the state horse and sacrifice of buffaloes and other animals. Dances, wrestling matches and grand processions of caparisoned horses, elephants, chariots and soldiers took place here. Thus, the great structure was used for some grand ceremonies.

    Question 10.
    ‘The Amara-Nayaka system was the major political innovation of the Vijayanagara empire.’ Elaborate. (HOTS; Delhi 2015)
    Answer:
    The Amara-Nayaka system was a major political innovation of the Vijayanagara empire.
    Many features of this system were derived from the iqta system of the Delhi sultanate. The Amara-Nayakas were military commanders who were given territories to govern by the Rayas or the rulers of Vijayanagara,

    The main features of the Amara-Nayaka system were:

    • The Amara-Nayakas collected taxes and other dues from peasants, craftpersons and traders in the area.
    • They retained part of the revenue for personal use and for maintaining a stipulated contingent of horses and elephants.
    • These contingents provided the Rayas an effective fighting force, with the help of which they controlled the Southern Peninsula.
    • The Amara-Nayakas sent tribute to the king annually and gave gifts to the king. Kings occasionally transferred them from one place to another to show their supremacy.
    • Many of these Nayakas established independent kingdoms which led to the collapse of the central imperial structure.

    Question 11.
    ‘The rulers of Vijayanagara innovated and developed new traditions in the Virupaksha temple’. Elaborate. (HOTS, Delhi 2015)
    Answer:
    Virupaksha temple was built over centuries. Inscription suggested that the earliest shrine of the Virupaksha temple dated to the 9th-10th centuries.

    Later, it was substantially enlarged with the establishment of the Vijayanagara empire. It was believed that the site of Vijayanagara was inspired by the existence of the shrines of Virupaksha and Pampadevi. Royal portrait sculpture was displayed in temple. The king’s visit to temples were treated as important state occasions on which he was accompanied by the important nayakas of the empire

    The hall in front of the main shrine with delicately carved pillars was built by Krishnadeva Raya to mark his accession. Virupaksha, the guardian deity of the kingdom, was recognised as a form of Shiva and Vijayanagara kings claimed to rule on behalf of the God Virupaksha. Krishnadeva Raya constructed the Eastern gopuram.

    The halls of the temple were used for a variety of purposes like programmes of music, dance, drama and marriages of deities. Special images of deities different from central shrines were used in these occasions. In this way, the rulers introduced new traditions in the Virupaksha temple.

    Question 12.
    Why were the water resources of the Vijayanagara empire developed? Give reasons. (All India 2015)
    or
    Explain how the people of Vijayanagara obtained water for their needs. (All India 2008)
    Answer:
    Vijayanagara empire was one of the most arid zones of the Peninsula, much importance was provided to water resources in the selection of capital.

    People of Vijayanagara obtained water in the following ways:
    1. The water requirements of Vijayanagara were met by the natural basin formed by the river Tungabhadra. This river flows in a North-Easterly direction. It is surrounded by the stunning granite hills. These hills seem to form a girdle around the city. It is from these rocky outcrops that many streams flow down to the river.

    2. In order to meet the water requirements of the city, embankments were built along these streams to create reservoirs of different sizes. One most important of such tanks was built during the early years of the 15 th century. It is now known as the Kamalapuram tank. The nearby fields were irrigated from the water of this tank. In order to meet the water requirements of the ‘Royal centre’, its water was also conducted through a channel to that place.

    3. Most of the water requirements of Vijayanagara were met with the water of Hiriya canal, one of the most prominent water works. It was perhaps built by kings of the Sangama dynasty. It drew water . from a dam across the Tungabhadra. The cultivated valley separate the ‘sacred centre’ from the ‘urban core’. This was irrigated by the water from this canal.
    Thus, the rulers of Vijayanagara displayed a special interest in the preservation of the water resources. They made a number of important efforts in order to meet the water requirements of common men.

    Question 13.
    Why was Vitthala temple of the Vijayanagara unique? (HOTS, All India 2015)
    Answer:
    The Vitthala temple is the another shrine located at Vijayanagara empire. The uniqueness of this temple can be understood through the following points:

    • The Vitthala temple is well-known ‘ for its exceptional architecture and unmatched craftsmanship. The iconic temple has amazing stone structures such as musical pillars. It has 56 musical pillars. The cluster of musical pillars was carved out of huge single pieces of resonant stone.
    • A characteristic feature of this temple complexes is the chariot streets that extended from the temple gopuram in a straight line.
      These streets were paved with stone slabs and lined with pillared pavilions in which merchants set up their shops.
    • This temple has several halls and a unique shrine designed as a chariot.
    • The principle deity of this temple was Vitthala, a form of Vishnu, which is generally worshipped in Maharashtra.

    Question 14.
    Why did the imperial power of Vijayanagara decline after the death of Krishnadeva Raya? (HOTS, All India 2015)
    Answer:
    There are various reasons for the decline of Vijayanagara empire e.g.

    • Strain began to show within the imperial structure after the death of Krishnadeva Raya in 1529.
    • His successors w’ere not much capable to stand up against the rebellious nayakas or military chief s which were posing threat to Vijayanagara.
    • By 1542, control at the centre shifted to another ruling lineage, that of the Aravidu, which remained in power till the end of the 17th century.
    • During this period, the military ambitions of the rulers of Vijayanagara as well as those of the Deccan sultanates resulted in shifting alignments.
    • Eventually, this led to an alliance of the sultanates against Vijayanagara.
      Finally, in 1565, the combined armies of Bijapur, Ahmadnagar and Golconda defeated the army of the Chief Minister of Vijayanagara, Rama Raya at Rakshari-Rangadi (Talikota).
    • Consequently, the city of Vijayanagara was sacked by the victorious armies and totally abandoned within a few years.

    Question 15.
    ‘Vijayanagara was characterised by a distinct building style’. Support this statement with the sacred architectural examples of Vijayanagara. (All India 2014)
    or
    Describe briefly about the buildings that survive and tell us about the way, spaces were organised and used in Vijayanagara. (Delhi 2010)
    Answer:
    Vijayanagara empire was founded by two brothers, Harihara and Bukka in 1336. The Vijayanagara kings competed with contemporary Sultans of the Deccan and Gajapati rulers of Orissa. Interaction with these states led to the sharing of ideas, especially in the field of architecture.

    The building style of Vijayanagara is discussed below:

    • The great ruler of Vijayanagara, Krishnadeva Raya, developed the kingdom by establishing some fine temples and adding impressive gopurams to many important South Indian temples. He also founded a suburban township, Nagalapuram, named after his mother.
    • Foreign travellers were greatly impressed by the fortification of the capital. The fort was entered through well-guarded gates, which linked the city to the major roads. The architecture of the gateways was influenced by the Turkish architecture. Some of the most important roads extended from temple gateways and were lined by bazaars.
    • The style of Raya gopurams or royal gateways were the symbols of the power of kings. Royal palaces had two types of platforms, viz. the audience hall and the Mahanavami dibba. The ceremonies performed in Mahanavami dibba included worship of the image, worship of state horse, sacrifices of buffaloes and other animals, dances, wrestling match, royal procession, etc.
    • Other distinctive features include mandapas or pavilions, long pillared corridors, etc. The Lotus Mahal and Hazara Rama temple had spectacular architecture. In this way, Vijayanagara developed a distinctive architectural style.

    Question 16.
    How and when were the ruins of Hampi brought to light? Explain briefly. (HOTS; Delhi 2012)
    Answer:
    It was Colin Mackenzie who brought to light the ruins at Hampi in around 1800.
    He was an engineer, surveyor and cartographer who served in India (mostly Southern parts).
    The following points discussed below tell us about the evidences of the ruins of Hampi:

    • His chief source of reconstruction of local histories was information gathered from recollections of priests of Virupaksha temple and Pampadevi (mother Goddess) temple.
    • In 1836, epigraphists began collecting several dozen inscriptions found in these temples and various other temples of Hampi. From 1856, photographers began to record the monuments for their research work in these fields.
    • The various descriptions left by travellers allowed historians to reconstruct some as’pects of vibrant life at Hampi in those years.
    • Other literature in various vernacular languages like Telugu, Kannada, Tamil and Sanskrit also proved to be the directions in assessing the remains of Hampi by various notable historians.
    • The oral traditions combined with archaeological findings, monuments, inscriptions and other records helped scholars to rediscover Hampi, i.e. the Vijayanagara empire.

    Question 17.
    Explain briefly any five striking features about the location of Vijayanagara. (All India 2012)
    Answer:
    The most striking feature about the location of Vijayanagara is the natural water resources which played an important role regarding the property of the empire. These features were as follows:

    • Vijayanagara was located in the natural basin formed by the river Tungabhadra, which flows in the North-Easterly direction.
    • The surrounding landscape was characterised by stunning granite hills that seem to form a girdle around the city.
    • Many embankments were built along those streams to create reservoirs of different sizes. Since Vijayanagara was one of the most arid zones of the Peninsula, perfect arrangement were made to store rainwater to be used in the city.
    • Kamalapuram tank was the best example of a tank built in early years of the 15th century. Water from this tank was used not only for irrigating fields but was also conducted through a channel to the ‘royal centre’.
    • According to the historians, the Hiriya canal was one of the most prominent waterworks. This canal drew water from a dam built across the river Tungabhadra and irrigated the cultivated fields that separated the ‘sacred centre’ from the ‘urban core’.

    Question 18.
    Describe the significance of temple building in the sacred centre of Vijayanagara. (All India 2010)
    Answer:
    Temple building in Vijayanagara had a long history. Temple building in this area got inspired by the dynasties such as the Pallavas, Chalukyas. Hoysalas and Cholas. Rulers had been encouraging temple building as a means of associating themselves with the divine.

    Temples were functioning as centre of learning. Rulers and other rich people granted land and other resources for the maintenance of temples. Temples were developed as significant religious, social, cultural and economic centres. Rulers thought that constructing, repairing and maintaining temple were the important means of winning support and recognition for their power, wealth and piety from the subjects.

    The choice of Vijayanagara as a site of sacred centre was inspired by the holy shrines of Virupaksha and Pampadevi. In reality, the Vijayanagara rulers claimed to rule on behalf of the God Virupaksha. Royal portrait sculpture was displayed in temples and the ruler’s visits to these temples in royal style was treated as an important state occasion on which he was accompanied by the important nayakas of the empire.
    All royal orders were signed ‘Shri Virupaksha’ using Kannada script.

    Rulers indicated their close links with the Gods by using the title ‘Hindu Suratrana’ which literally meant Hindu Sultan. This all added to the significance of temple building in the sacred centre of Vijayanagara.

    Question 19.
    Describe the various efforts made by scholars to reconstruct the history of the city and the empire from the ruins of Hampi upto the century. (Delhi 2008)
    Answer:
    Various efforts made by scholars to reconstruct the history of the city and the empire from the ruins of Hampi in the 19th century were as follows:

    • Colonel Colin Mackenzie, an engineer, surveyor and cartographer of the East India Company, prepared the first survey map of Hampi in 1800.
    • A lot of initial information received by him was based on the memories of priests of the Virupaksha temple
      . and the shrine of Pampadevi.
    • Later the photographers started recording the monuments of Hampi which enabled scholars to study them.
    • The epigraphists as early as 1836 had started collecting several dozen inscriptions found at this site and other temples at Hampi.
    • The historians collated information collected from all these sources with accounts of foreign travellers and relevant literature written in various vernacular languages like Telugu, Kannada, Tamil and Sanskrit in order to reconstruct the history of the city and the empire.

    Important Questions for Class 12 History Chapter 7 – 8 Marks Questions

    Question 20.
    Explain why Abdur Razzak, a Persian Ambassador was greatly impressed by the fortification of Vijayanagara empire during the 15th century. Delhi 2013
    or
    Highlight any four aspects observed by Abdur Razzak on the fortification of the vijayanagar empire. Delhi 2016
    Answer:
    Abdur Razzak was an ambassador sent by the ruler of Persia to Calicut in the 15 th century. He was greatly impressed by the fortification of the Vijayanagara empire. The aspects observed by him are:

    • Abdur Razzaq mentioned seven lines of forts.
    • The fortification encircled not only the city but also its agricultural hinterlands and forests. Razzak noted that “between the first, second and the third walls there are cultivated fields, gardens and houses”.
    • The outermost wall linked the hills surrounding the city.
    • The massive masonry construction was slightly tapered. No mortar or cementing agent was used anywhere in the construction. The stone blocks were wedge, shaped, which held them in place. The inner portion of the wall was of i.e. earth packed with rubble. Square or rectangular bastions projected outwards.
    • The fort was entered through well-guarded gates which linked the city to the major roads. Gateways were distinctive architectural features that often defined the structures to which they regulated access.
    • The arch on the gateway leading into the fortified settlement as well as the dome over the gate are regarded as typical features of the architecture introduced by the Turkish Sultans. Art historians refer to this style as Indo-Islamic, as it grew continually through interaction with local building practices in different regions.

    Question 21.
    Why was the South-Western part of Vijayanagara settlement designated as Royal centre? Explain. (HOTS; All India 2013)
    Answer:
    The Royal centre of Vijayanagara empire was located in the South-Western part of the settlement. It had more than 60 temples. The patronage of temples and cults was very important for the rulers. The rulers tried to establish and legitimate their authority through the association with deities in the temple.
    ‘ The following points explain about the importance of this location:

    1. The Royal centres had thirty palaces. These were large structures and were not associated with ritual functions.
    The main difference between the palaces and temples was that the temples were constructed entirely of masonry, but the superstructure of the palaces was made of perishable materials.

    2. The king’s palace was the largest complex of the royal centre. But there was no definite evidence to prove that it was a royal residence. The entire complex is surrounded by high double walls, with a street running between them. It has two platforms, viz.

    The Audience Hall It was a high platform with w’ooden pillars at close and regular intervals. It had a staircase, going up to the second floor, rested on closely spaced pillars. However, it was not clear for what purposes was the hall used.
    The Mahanavami Dibba It was located in the highest point of the city. It was a massive platform rising from a base of about 11,000 sq ft to a height of 40 ft. It supported a wooden structure. Main ceremonies being performed in Mahanavami dibba included worship of the image, worship of the state horse and the sacrifice of buffaloes and other animals, dances, wrestling matches, royal processions, etc. The base of the platform was covered with relief carvings.

    3. There were several grand places in the royal centre, viz. the Lotus Mahal, the Hazara Rama temple, etc. These were used by the kings for different purposes.

    Question 22.
    Explain the striking features about the location of Vijayanagara, its water resources and fortifications. (Delhi 2012)
    Answer:
    Location The most striking feature about the location of Vijayanagara is the natural basin formed by the river Tungabhadra. This river flows in a North-Easterly direction. The surrounding landscape of the city is characterised by granite hills which seem to form a girdle around the city. There are a number of streams that flow down from this river in this rocky area.

    Water Resources As Vijayanagara is situated in one of the most arid zones of the Peninsula, so it was necessary to store rainwater and use it later. Thus, a large number of embankments were built along these streams to create reservoirs in different sizes. The most important tank was Kamalapuram tank which was built in early 15th century. Water from this tank was used for irrigation. It was also conducted through a channel to the ‘Royal centre’. Another important water work was the Hiriya canal which was built by the kings of Sangam dynasty. This canal drew water from a dam across the Tungabhadra river and this water was used for cultivation of the valley.

    Fortifications Foreign travellers like Abdur Razzaq were greatly impressed by the fortifications of Vijayanagara. There was seven lines of forts. These fortification encircled the city its agricultural hinterland and forests. The outermost wall linked the hills surrounding the city. Between the first, second and the third walls, there are cultivated fields, gardens and houses. The second line of fortification went round the inner core of the urban complex, and a third line surrounded the Royal centre. In royal centre, each set of major building was surrounded by its own high walls.

    The dome over the gateways led into the fortified settlement. This was an example of Indo-Islamic style of architecture. The rulers of Vijayanagara adopted an expensive and elaborate strategy of protecting their capital and agricultural belt by constructing ‘ fortification wall.

    Question 23.
    1. Explain how the Amara-Nayaka system was a major political innovation of the Vijayanagara empire.
    2. Why did strain begin to show within the imperial structure after the death of Krishnadeva Raya in 1529?
    (All India 2012)
    Answer:
    1. The Amara-Nayaka system was a major political innovation of the Vijayanagara empire.
    Many features of this system were derived from the iqta system of the Delhi sultanate. The Amara-Nayakas were military commanders who were given territories to govern by the Rayas or the rulers of Vijayanagara,

    The main features of the Amara-Nayaka system were:

    • The Amara-Nayakas collected taxes and other dues from peasants, craftpersons and traders in the area.
    • They retained part of the revenue for personal use and for maintaining a stipulated contingent of horses and elephants.
    • These contingents provided the Rayas an effective fighting force, with the help of which they controlled the Southern Peninsula.
    • The Amara-Nayakas sent tribute to the king annually and gave gifts to the king. Kings occasionally transferred them from one place to another to show their supremacy.
    • Many of these Nayakas established independent kingdoms which led to the collapse of the central imperial structure.

    2. Following Krishnadeva Raya’s death in 1529, the strain began to show within the imperial structure. The successors of Krishnadeva were troubled by many rebellious nayakas or other military . chiefs.
    In 1542, the control at the centre had shifted to another ruling lineage, viz. Aravidu, which remained in power till the end of the 17th century. During this period, the military ambitions of the rulers of Vijayanagara as well as that of the

    Deccan sultanates resulted in the shifting of alignments between the kingdoms.
    The tense situations led to an alliance of sultanates against Vijayanagara. In 1565, Rama Raya, the Chief Minister of Vijayanagara, led the army into the battle at Rakashasi Tangadi where his forces were routed by the combined armies of Bijapur, Ahmadnagar and Golconda.

    The victorious armies sacked the city of Vijayanagara. The city was totally abandoned within a few years. The armies of the sultans were responsible for the destruction of the city of Vijayanagara. It was only after the death of Krishnadeva Raya, the relation between Sultans and Rayas became bitter.

    The adventurous policy of Rama Raya who tried to play off one Sultan against another, made the Sultans angry and they combinedly defeated him. In this way, Vijayanagara empire was gradually destructed.

    Important Questions for Class 12 History Chapter 7 Source Based Questions

    Question 24.
    King and Traders:
    Krishnadeva Raya (ruled 1509-29), the most famous ruler of Vijayanagara, composed a work on statecraft in Telugu known as the Amuktamalyada. About traders he wrote : A king should improve the harbours of his country and so encourage its commerce that horses, elephants, precious gems, sandalwood, pearls and other articles are freely imported. He should arrange that the foreign sailors who land in his country on account of storms, illness and exhaustion are looked after in a suitable manner… Make the merchants of distant foreign countries who import elephants and good horses be attached to yourself by providing them with daily audience, presents and allowing decent profits. Then those articles will never go to your enemies.

    1. Explain the responsibilities of king mentioned by Krishnadeva Raya.
    2. In what ways had Krishnadeva Raya protected articles from going to his enemies?
    3. Explain the measures taken by the king to improve the conditions of his country. (Delhi 2014)

    or

    1. Who was the most famous ruler of Vijayanagara and why?
    2. Mention the name and theme of the work compiled by him.
    3. Why do you think the king was interested in encouraging trade? Explain. Delhi 2013

    Answer:
    1. In Amuktamalyada, Krishnadeva Raya mentioned the responsibilities of king in the following ways:

    • A king should improve the harbours of his country.
    • He should encourage commerce so that horses, elephants, precious gems, sandalwood, pearls and other articles should be freely imported.
    • He should also arrange that the foreign sailors who have to land in his country on account of storms, illness and exhaustion are looked after in a proper manner.

    2. Krishnadeva Raya gave protection on a regular basis to the merchants of foreign countries who imported elephant and horses to his country. He also gave them precious presents and made extensive arrangements so that the merchants could get decent profits.

    3. Measures taken by the king to improve the condition of his country are:

    • The king should protect borders from his enemies.
    • The king should take necessary steps to improve the trade and commerce, i.e., economic situation of the country.

    or
    Answer:
    1. Krishnadeva Raya (1509-29) was the most famous ruler of Vijayanagara. He belonged to Tuluva dynasty. During his time, Vijayanagara flourished under the conditions of unparalleled peace and prosperity. Thus, his rule was characterised by expansion and consolidation.

    2. Krishnadeva Raya composed a work in Telugu known as Amuktamalyada. The main theme of this work was a statecraft.

    3. The king wanted to improve the economic conditions, i.e. overall prosperity of his kingdom.

    To fulfil this goal, he took the following steps:

    • The king improved the harbours of his country.
    • He encouraged the commerce of his country,
    • He encouraged free import of horses, elephants, precious gems, sandalwood, pearls and other articles.

    Question 25.
    Colin Mackenzie
    Born in 1754, Colin Mackenzie became famous as an engineer, surveyor and cartographer. In 1815, he was appointed as the first Surveyor General of India, a post he held till his death in 1821. He embark on collecting local histories and surveying historic sites in order to better understand India’s past and make governance of the colony easier. He says that “it struggled long under the miseries of bad management… before the South came under the benign influence of the British government”.

    But studying Vijayanagara, Mackenzie believed that the East India Company could gain “much useful information on many of these institutions, laws and customs whose influence still prevails among the various Tribes of Natives forming the general mass of the population to this day”.

    1. Who was Colin Mackenzie? Give his introduction.
    2. Mention what Mackenzie did to make governance of the colony easier.
    3. According to him what benefits would the East India Company gain after studying Vijayanagara? Explain in brief. (All India 2013)

    Answer:
    1. Colin Mackenzie was bom in 1754. He was a famous engineer, surveyor and cartographer. He was appointed as the first Surveyor General of British India in 1815 and held the post till his death in 1821.

    2. Mackenzie collected information about local histories and surveyed historic sites. All these helped Britishers to better understand India’s past and govern their colony in an easy manner.

    3. studying the important informations about Vijayanagara regarding laws and customs, the East India Company became aware about the various Tribes of Natives forming the general mass of the population of India. This knowledge certainly helped the government officials to rule the general masses.

    Question 26.
    How tanks were built:
    About a tank constructed by Krishnadeva Raya, Paes wrote:
    The king made a tank … at the mouth of two hills so that all the water which comes from either one side or the other collects there; and besides this, water comes to it from more than three leagues (approximately 15 kilometres) by pipes which run along the lower parts of the range outside.
    This water is brought from a lake which itself overflows into a little river. The tank has three large pillars handsomely carved with figures; these connect above with certain pipes by which they get water when they have to irrigate their gardens and rice-fields.
    In order to make this tank, the king broke down a hill. In the tank I saw so many people at work that there must have been fifteen or twenty thousands men, looking like ants.

    1. Explain briefly where the tank was constructed.
    2. Explain briefly the sources of water for the tanks.
    3. Explain briefly the advantages of constructing tanks. All India 2010

    or

    1. Where and why were tanks build by Krishnadeva Raya?
    2. Explain how the tanks were constructed.
    3. Describe the most prominent water works among the ruins and who built these waterworks. (All India 2009)

    Answer:
    1. The tank was constructed by Krishnadeva Raya at the mouth of two hills, so that all the water which comes from either one side or the other collects there.

    2. The water is brought from a lake which itself overflows into a little river.

    3. These tanks were helpful in irrigating the gardens and rice-fields of the country.

    or

    1. The tank was constructed by Krishnadeva Raya at the mouth of two hills, so that all the water which comes from either one side or the other collects there.

    2. The tanks were constructed by breaking down a hill.

    3. One of the most prominent waterworks among the ruins is Hiriya canal. This canal drew water from a dam across the Tungabhadra river and irrigated the cultivated valley which separated the sacred centre from the urban core. This was apparently built by the kings of the Sangama dynasty.

    Important Questions for Class 12 History Chapter 7 Map Based Question

    Question 27.
    On the given political outline map of India, locate and label the following with appropriate symbols.

    1. The area where Krishnadeva Raya ruled. (Delhi 2015)
    2. Mysore, Thanjavur. (All India 2011)

    Answer:
    Important Questions for Class 12 History Chapter 7 An Imperial Capital Vijayanagara Q27

    Important Questions for Class 12 History Chapter 7 Value Based Questions

    Question 28.
    Domingo Paes has called the Mahanavami dibba of Vijayanagara empire as ‘The House of Victory’. Justify. (Delhi 2014)
    Answer:
    Domingo Paes called the Mahanavami dibba of the Vijayanagara empire as The House of Victory’. These buildings had two platforms, one above the other. These were beautifully sculpted. On the upper platform, the king had a room made of cloth, where the idol had a shrine. It is the highest point in the city and is a massive platform. The other in the middle was placed a dais (a low platform for a throne) on which stood a throne of state.

    He suggested that for the people the showed the victory of good over evil. Both these ‘audience hall’ and the ‘Mahanavami dibba’ comprised of the valour, justice and the suzerainty of the king over all other.
    The calling of the house as the house of victory was due to the fact that it was situated at the site highest of all in the kingdoms. It was constructed so as to keep up the memory of the victory of the kingdom in war over other kingdoms and empires.

    Question 29.
    ‘Krishnadeva Raya’s rule was characterised by expansion and consolidation’. Justify the statement on the basis of evidences. (Delhi 2011)
    Answer:
    The most famous ruler of Vijayanagara, Krishnadeva Raya (1509-29) belonged to the Tuluva dynasty. His rule was characterised by expansion and consolidation in the following ways:

    • The land between the Tungabhadra and Krishna rivers (the Raichur Doab) was acquired by Krishnadeva Raya in 1512.
    • In 1514, rulers of Odisha were subdued and Sultan of Bijapur was defeated in 1520. He made his kingdom so extensive that many smaller kingdoms allied with it and showed their respect to Raja Krishnadeva Raya.
    • His kingdom remained in a constant state of military preparedness. It flourished under the conditions of unparalleled peace and prosperity at the time of Krishnadeva Raya.

    Question 30.
    Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow.
    According to tradition and epigraphic evidence two brothers, Harihara and Bukka, founded the Vijayanagara empire in 1336. This empire included within its fluctuating frontiers peoples who spoke different languages and followed different religious traditions.

    On their Northern frontier, the Vijayanagara kings competed with contemporary rulers-including the Sultans of the Deccan and the Gajapati rulers of Odisha-for control of the fertile river valleys and the resources generated by lucrative overseas trade. At the same time, interaction between these states led to sharing of ideas, especially in the field of architecture. The rulers of Vijayanagara borrowed concepts and building techniques which they then developed further.

    1. Who is considered the founder of Vijayanagara empire?
    2. Why was the area of river valley important for Vijayanagara kings?

    Answer:
    1. According to tradition and epigraphic evidence, two brothers, Harihara and Bukka were considered the founders of Vijayanagara empire (1336).

    2. The river valley was important for Vijayanagara kings because of its fertile plains, agricultural lands and the resources generated by lucrative overseas trade. It was also important from the cultural point of view e.g. interaction between neighbouring states led to sharing of ideas, especially in the field of architecture. Building techniques were adopted from the neighbouring states.
    Therefore, the Vijayanagara kings were always competed with their contemporary rulers including the Sultans of the Deccan and the Gajapati ruler of Odisha for control of the fertile river valleys.

    Question 31.
    Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow.
    Answer:
    The ceremonies performed on the occasion (Mahanavami) included worship of the image, worship of the state horse, and the sacrifice of buffaloes and other animals. Dances, wrestling matches, and processions of caparisoned horses, elephants and chariots and soldiers, as well as ritual presentations before the king and his guests by the chief nayakas and subordinate kings marked the occasion.

    These ceremonies were imbued with deep symbolic meanings. On the last day of the festival, the king inspected his army and the armies of the nayakas in a grand ceremony in an open field. On this occasion the nayakas brought rich gifts for the king as well as the stipulated tribute.

    • How was the occasion of Mahanavami celebrated during the period of Vijayanagara empire?
    • How were the kings of Vijayanagara displayed their power during the occasion of Mahanavami?
    • On this occasion, the nayakas brought rich gifts for the king as well as the stipulated tribute.

    Important Questions for Class 12 History

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