Physical Education Class 12 Notes Chapter 9 Sports Medicine
Concept and Definition of Sports Medicine
Sports medicine also known as Sport and Exercise Medicine (SEM) is a branch of medicine that specialises in the treatment and prevention of injuries related to participation in sports and/or exercise’. Sports medicine mainly deals with injuries like rotation of deformation of joints or muscles injuries caused by engaging in physical activities.
Aims and Scope of Sports Medicine
It is clear from the definition of sports medicine that the major aim of sports medicine is maintaining physical fitness of sportsperson. It also aims at treating and preventing, sports related injuries and rapid recovery of patients.
There are three specific,aims of sports medicine
- Scientific Promotion – of Sports and Games
- Developing Preventive Healthcare
- Sports Medical Extension Services
The scope of sports medicine is very wide. It is not a single area of specialty. It is an area that involves healthcare professionals, researchers and educators from a wide variety of disciplines. Other than the prevention and treatment of sports related injuries, spots medicine also looks after a diverse area.
First Aid: Aims and Objectives
First aid is the assistance given to any person suffering a sudden illness or injury, with care provided to preserve life, prevent the condition from worsening, and/or promote recovery. Although there are various roles of first aid but the key aims of first aid are as follows, sometimes known as the three P’s.
Main aim of first aid is to preserve life by carrying out emergency first aid procedures. For example, opening a casualty’s airway or performing cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Preserving life should always be the overall aim of all first aiders. This includes first aider’s own life. We should never put ourselves or others in danger. This is why the first stage in assessing a casualty is to conduct a risk assessment and check for any dangers. If a situation is too dangerous to approach, we should stay back and call for professional help.
The second aim of first aid is to prevent the casualty’s condition from deteriorating any further. For example, asking a casualty with a broken limb to stay still and padding around the injury will prevent the fracture from moving and causing further injury or pain. In addition, this aim includes preventing further injuries. We should attempt to make the area as safe as possible and removing any dangers. If moving danger is not possible, we should attempt to remove the patient from the danger or call for specialist help.
Finally, we can promote recovery by arranging prompt emergency medical help. In addition, simple first aid can significantly affect the long-term recovery of injury. For example, quickly cooling a burn will reduce the risk of long-term scarring and will encourage early healing.
Sports Injuries: Classification, Causes and Prevention
Sports injuries are injuries that occur in athletics activities. They can result from acute trauma, or from overuse of a particular body part.
Sports injuries can be classified in various ways. Classification can be based on the time taken for the tissues to become injured, tissue type affected and the severity of the injury.
Several types of injury are as follows
Soft Tissue Injury [STI]
A Soft Tissue Injury (STI) is the damage of muscles, ligaments and tendons throughout the body.
Soft tissue injuries fall into two basic categories
- Acute Injuries This is one of the most common methods of classifying sports injuries. It is based on the time taken for the tissues to become injured.
- Overuse Injuries Overuse injuries are not so pervasive and represent a greater challenge for the sports therapist in diagnosis and management.
Injuries Based on Tissue Type Injured
Sports injuries can be classified according to which tissue has been damaged. This allows sports therapists to identify soft, hard and special tissue injuries. The injuries to muscles, ligaments, tendons and skin are soft tissue injuries.
Injuries Based on Severity
Most sports injuries require sports persons to reduce participation or cease it altogether. Therefore sports injuries can also be classified relating to how long the symptoms present themselves.
Bone and Joint Injuries
The musculoskeletal system comprises over half the body mass. The most common musculoskeletal dysfunctions are joint stiffness, joint swelling and joint pains. Bones, being non-yielding structures are damaged when excessive force is applied directly or indirectly.
- A fracture is a break in the continuity of a bone or a separation of a bone into two or more parts.
- A great amount of soft-tissue damage may accompany this type of injury.
Types of Fracture
Fractures are classified as open and closed. An open fracture is one in which there is a break in the skin that is contiguous with the fracture. The bone is either protruding from the wound or exposed through a channel, which can be produced by an arrow, javelin, bullet or other ways. A closed fracture is not complicated by a break in the skin, but there is usually soft-tissue damage beneath the intact skin.
Causes of Sports Injuries
Some common causes of sports injuries are
- Anatomical factors
- Individual difference factors
- Age related causes
- Training related causes
- Equipment selection factors
- Impact and contact causes
- Poor techniques
Prevention of Sports Injuries
General preventive measures that can prevent
- sports injuries are
- Warm-Up and cool-down
- Planning a session
- Using protective equipment
- Adherence to the rules
- Regular fitness testing
- Psychological training
- Meeting nutritional requirements
Management of Sports Injuries
Management and’ treatment of a sports injury will depend upon how severe the injury is and which part of the body is affected. It involves identifying an injury, treatment, providing sufficient rest to the injured person and then returning to the sport.
Standard Techniques for Injury Treatment
Minor injuries to soft tissue and to bones and joints can be treated with standard TOTAPS, RICER and No-HARM principles. These are essential elements for assessment and quick recovery from injuries. Details of each of these practices are
- TOTAPS stands for Talk, Observe, Touch, Active movement, Passive movement and Skill test. It is helpful in assessing all non-serious injuries.
- RICER stands for Rest, Ice, Compression, Elevation and Referral. RICER is used to manage soft tissue injury to reduce scarring and pain for faster recovery. This is a technique to be used as a first aid technique immediately after an injury occurs.
- No-HARM or Avoid Harm stands for No-Heat, No-Alcohol, No-Running and No-Massage. These are the important precautions that any injured athlete must take for the first 72 hours after an injury occurs.
Other Techniques for Injury Treatment
Painkillers such as paracetamol can be used initially to help ease the pain.
Immobilisation of the injured part can sometimes help to prevent further damage by reducing movement. It can also reduce pain, muscle swelling and muscle spasm.
Some people recovering from a long-term injury may benefit from physiotherapy. This is a specialist treatment that can involve techniques such as massage, manipulation and exercise to improve the range of motion, strengthen the surrounding muscles, and return the normal function of injured area.
If one has a severe or persistent inflammation, a corticosteroid injection may be recommended. Such an injection can help to relieve pain caused by injury, although for some people the pain relief is minimal or only lasts for a short period of time.
Surgery and Procedures
Most sports injuries don’t require surgery, but very severe injuries such as badly broken bones may require corrective surgery to fix the bones with wires, plates, screws or rods.
Depending on the type of injury one has, it can take a few weeks to a few months or more to make a full recovery. A sportsperson should not return to his previous level of activity until he has fully recovered, but he should aim to gently start moving the injured body part as soon as possible.
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